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Midterm

Kinesiology 2230A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Homeostasis, Exhalation, Skeletal Muscle


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Professor
Glen Belfry
Study Guide
Midterm

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Lab Exam Review
Lab 1 – Enzyme Kinetics
Enzymes (protein and biological catalyst)
Allow chemical reactions to occur at a rate that makes reaction useful to living organism
Capable of coupling reactions
Transition State
oThe halfway point – bonds of substrate are distorted sufficiently so conversion to
product is possible
oMust be passed before substrate can become product (S  P)
oCertain amount of energy must be possessed by enzyme to reach this state
Activation Energy
oMinimum amount of energy required to reach transition state
Reaction Rate (S  P)
oDepends on how many molecules of substrate enter transition state per unit time
Two ways to increase reaction rate
oRaise temperature
oLower activation energy
Enzyme: Alkaline Phosphatase
Catalyzes hydrolysis of a variety of organic phosphate esters
Ester  One -OH group is replaced by one -O group
Substrate: P-Nitrophenol Phosphate
Changes color (clear  yellow) when phosphate is split off
Calculating Substrate Concentration
Remember, C1V1 = C2V2
Solve for C2
oC1V1/V2
C1 is given in the question
C2 is concentration of product, variable we are trying to calculate
V1 is substrate volume, found in chart
V2 is volume of solution, sum of buffer, H20 (water), MgCl2 (acid), substrate, enzyme
Answer in moles/mL
Determine VMAX and KM
oBased on substrate concentration equation results
VMAX
Maximum reaction velocity (rate at which enzyme fully saturated with substrate)
oOn velocity vs. [substrate] graph, VMAX is the highest point or asympote
KM (Michaelis’ Constant)

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Substrate concentration at half the VMAX of a reaction
oOn graph, Half of VMAX (Y axis) and half of concentration (X axis) is the KM
Example Table
Tube Code Buffer H2O MgCl2Substrate Enzyme Absorbanc
e
[Substrate]
1 1 1.00 0.95 0.10 0.05 (A) 0.10 0.142 0.00045
C1 0.002 mol/L (substrate concentration, starts in the tube)
oFound in question
V1
0.05 mL (substrate volume, starts in the tube)
oFound in chart
C2X mol/L (concentration of product, variable we are trying to calculate)
V2
2.20 mL (volume of solution in tube after everything added)
oFound in sum of all volumes in chart
Substrate Concentration
Solving for C1
Enzyme Concentration
Solving for C2
Lab 2 – Pulmonary Ventilation
When work promotes increased O2 delivery and CO2 removal, ventilation must occur at a rate
and intensity sufficient to maintain arterial homeostasis
Increased work rate  Increase ventilation

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Tidal Volume (TV)
Normal breathing pattern
Volume of air breathed in normal inspiration and expiration
On graph:
oPeak to valley of normal breath wave
Vital Capacity (VC)
Volume of maximal inhalation and exhalation
Difference between point expiration onset and lowest point expiration
On graph:
oPeak to valley of largest wave
VC = TLC - RV or VC = ERV - IC
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Maximal inhalation possible after normal exhalation
Difference between lowest point normal exhalation and highest point maximal inhalation
IC = VC - ERC or IC = TV + IRV
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Volume of air that can be exhaled past a normal exhalation
Difference between lowest point normal exhalation and lowest point maximal expiration
ERV = VC - IC
Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV)
Determined by a test in which the subject is asked to breathe as fast and as deep as
possibly for about 12 seconds
Results are extrapolated to 1 minute
Try to move as much air as possible within time limit (plotted on time vs. volume graph)
Must correct values to BTPS*
oFind temperature of room on chart under ATPS and then find corresponding
number under BTPS
oThis number is your conversion factor
oEach value in ATPS multiplied by this number to convert to BTPS*
Pulmonary or Minute Ventilation (VE)
Measurement of how many breaths are taken in 10 second span and use to calculate
VE (L/min) = TV (L/breath) x frequency (breaths/min)
*Ventilation increases during exercise because of these two factors:
Increase in TV (volume of air breathed)
Increase in breathing frequency (how fast you are breathing)
Ventilation higher in train individuals despite exercise intensity
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