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Kinesiology 2241A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Vertebral Column, Coccyx, Anthropometry

Course Code
Kinesiology 2241A/B
Bob Vigars
Study Guide

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Lecture 1:
Kinetics= forces that cause movement
o Examples buoyancy, centripetal, friction, pressure, gravity …etc
Kinematics = describing that movement
o Described in m/sec, degrees/sec
o Acceleration is a change in velocity or a change in direction
o Displacement is described in metres or degrees
o Momentum is M = mv
Efficient vs. Effective
An efficient movement is one where there is minimal energy expenditure, which is useful in
endurance sports. The performer is able to perform faster, with less energy expended
An effective movement is not concerned with efficiency- the only concern is making the most
appropriate movements to achieve the mechanical purpose (MP), and obtain your Overall
Performance Objective (OPO)
o In other words, you just move appropriately for the situation to get what/where you
Lecture 2:
Vertebral column (VC)
o 7 cervical
o 12 thoracic
o 5 lumbar
o 4 coccyx
o Sacrum
Functions of the skeleton:
o Protect vital organs
o Support soft tissues
o Manufacture RBCs
o Reservoir for minerals
o Attachments for muscles
o Levers and pulleys to create muscle torques
Physical stress on bones:
o Compression
o Tension
o Torsion
o Shear
Properties of tendons/ ligaments
o Elasticity: ability to stretch and return to its original length
o Elastic limit: point of no return to original length
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o Plasticity: tissue is stretched beyond the elastic limit (so it stays lengthened)
How does an articulation stay stable?
o Its bone arrangement (strong when one bone ‘fits’ as in a ball-and-socket)
o Ligament arrangement (the quality of the ligaments, how many there are)
o Muscle arrangement
Factors affecting an articulation’s range of motion (ROM)
o Shape of articulation (type of joint)
o Tightness of muscles and ligaments (flexibility)
o Size of adjacent tissue (anything getting in the way)
o Restrictive clothing/ equipment during play
Lecture 3:
Spatial frame of reference: x = forward/backward, y = left/right, z = up/down
Linear vs. rotary motion
o Linear = motion in a line path
Rectilinear (straight path), example a dropping ball. This is very rare in sport, as
it is only rectilinear when it is straight down
Curvilinear: a straight path from start to finish, but it goes in an arc. Projectile
motion where it curves, but lands in front in a straight line
o Rotary = motion occurring in relation to a fixed point. The fixed point is the axis of
rotation, and the radius of rotation is the distance from any point to the axis (for
example if I am rotating my arm about my shoulder, the shoulder joint is the fixed point,
and the radius could be the distance from my shoulder to elbow, shoulder to wrist, or
even shoulder to fingertips)
Planes and Axes
Plane: a flat surface that divides body or segment
Axis: an axle about which a body or segment rotates, parallel to the plane
o Movement occurs IN A PLANE and ABOUT AN AXIS
Sagittal Plane Movements about M-L axis extension and flexion
o Flexion, hyperflexion, transverse flexion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion
o Extension , hyperextension, transverse extension
o The plane goes through my midline, splitting my body into left/right, and the axis goes
from my left to my right
Frontal Plane Movements about A-P axis abduction and adduction
o Abduction, transverse abduction
o Adduction, transverse adduction
o Depression, elevation
o Lateral flexion, radial flexion, ulnar flexion
o The plane goes through my left and right, splitting my body into front and back. The axis
goes through my centre
Transverse Plane Movements about longitudinal axis spinning
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