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Music 2711F/G
John Pippen

Ritornello • a recurrent musical section that alternates with different episodes of contrasting material. Da Capo Aria • from the head, after B performers go back to the beginning ofAand continues to end of that section • very common in Opera Seria Exit Convention • come on stage, sing aria then finish and leave and the crowd would go crazy and they would come back ◦ This resulted in competition ◦ common with castrati Ballad Opera • Play with music that portrayed common people, even criminals, lots of satire, familiar music- helps • English setting of tunes that are widely known, satirical, comical, no cal embellishment, strophic text • John Gay (1685=1732) • The Beggars Opera Sonata Da Camera • “Chamber sonata” • Suite of dances • Private or semi-private settings Suite • Varying number of dances grouped together (could include non-dance pieces as well) • In the same key (M and m) • Could be programmatic in nature (most often indicated by how the composer has titled the dance) Tocatta • “touch” • Quasi-improvisatory • Virtuosic piece • fast-moving • “light fingers” • Equal Temperment • Well-tempered clavier • Idea of half step from next • equal temperament • just adjustment (tuned to particular key) ( made it hard to play in different keys Well-tempered Clavier • Written as a idea of different keys • like an encyclopedia for even temperament Basso Continuo • Contin uous bass • provided framework for the voice above it. Oratorio • Began in 1600 • sacred opera • usually without elaborate costumes • sometimes not staged • Church needed own opera ( banned it during lent operas as they wanted people to focus on God- but they realized that music made people listen) • Large scale religious works • Replacement for banned opera • No staging or costumes, narrator instead ( sometimes staged) • Used all conventions of opera ( recitative, da capo aria, chorus) • “Jept” (1645) by Carrissimi ( in Latin) Castrato • Became Synonymous for a new type of vocal virtuosity ( very broad, meant someone who was very talented) • Originated in Italy • Surgery was illegal, though it wasn't really enforced, 1700 more frowned upon • Preferred alternative to falsettos or chorister boys ( they were trained a while, castrati were more powerful( • Women were forbidden from church/theatre singing until 1600 • Early on employed by churches, increasingly common as genre flourished • After 1710, famous castrati were opera singers ( not church singers) • people seemed enthusiastic • undeveloped surgery in youth, before puberty • well trained in all musical aspects • part of super-start system, exit -convention ( they were more popular then the opera they were singing • Exit convention: come on stage, sing aria then finish and leave and the crowd would go crazy and they would come back ◦ This resulted in competition • Had high, powerful voices, • Usually male leads-hero, lovers, etc • dominated opera seria • gender roles were different • Castrati were sexually desirable and could never get people pregnant Sonata da Chiesa • “Church sonata” • somehow suitable for performance within the liturgy • In principle and in title, not based on dance forms (often musically similar) • Serious and majestic Ground Bass • repeated figure in the bass Opera Seria • Italy • Literally “ serious opera” • usually tragic content • very popular • developed in Italy and sung almost exclusively in Italian • Became an international drama • libretto draws from classical antiquity • Rulers presented in favourable light, heroic, placing honour above personal gain • texts balance drama and music with mixture of action ( recitative) and reflection (aria) Accompanied Recitative • Recitativo accompagnato • Accompanied recitative • supported by full orchestra for moments of high emotion or dramatically Secco Recitative • Singer only accompanied by basso continuo • dry recitative Tragedie En Musique • French Overture • Allegorical prologue ( usually about recent events) • five acts of sung drama ( divided into scenes) • diverse essments ( innerspersed in acts and dance,etc) • Neede to distinguish from Italian opera and French Dramatically mixture of operatic conventions • emphasis on spectacle, merveilleux • air and recit mixed with duets, trios and choruses ◦ clearly defined Trio Sonata • End of 17th century • Three notated parts: two higher voices and continuo • How many players?- four • flexible instrumentation for solo voices ◦ solo sometimes designated two violins or recorder and violin or sometimes not designated Solo Sonata Concerto • originally very wide range of meanings • Concerto Grosso - early on, a sort of large scale sonata or sinfonia, later a work that pitted a group of soloists against an orchestra • Solo concerto - a soloist pitted against an orchestra Secular Cantata • Secular canata • new genre • chamber ensemble and mostly solo singing • similar to madrigals • organized around a them • many smaller ariosos” songs • structurally flexible • Antonio Cesti, Barbera Strozzi • Elisabeth Jacquet de la Gaeme • can contain sacred content • performed in secular setting George Fredric Handel 1685-1759 • Early life ( 1695-1706) travels, variety of musical works ( asst. Organist, violinist, composer, wrote two opera seria • Travels to Italy, studying new operatic genre, oratorios • 1710 Kapellmeister to elector of Hanover • 1712 moves to England after success of operas • elector becomes kind George I of England • 1720-41: writes numerous opera seria, gradually shifts toward oratorios Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) • Music director, Ospedale della Pietà in Venice • Works widely published, popular • Oft scorned by fellow composers b/c of compositional tactics ◦ For example, moved wildly to new key • Master of dramatic instrumental music • Profited from Venetian tourism and many crowds would come to hear the orphans play his music ARCANGELO CORELLIb (1653-1713) • Italian composer, virtuoso violinist • Wrote solo sonata, trio sonata, concerti • Fame from teaching, playing, published works • Instrumental works often a quick succession of • movements Claudio Monteverdi • Wrote in both prima prattica and seconda prattica • First half of career ( 1590) he was a court musician, eventually music • director, for Gonzaga nobles in Mantua • for the second half he was a maestro di capela ( basically a music director) at the basilica of San Marco • Well respected and well paid • wrote in many genres Baroque Orchestra • Concerto for strings, horns, oboes, and harpsichords • consorts commonwealthmixed groups consorts connected with institutions/holidays • churches • German and French • You didn'tneed a lot of orchestras because there was a need to do much public instrumental music Johann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750 • Born in central Germany • Organist and chamber musician ( violin) writes music-help music director/court composer at anahalt cathen (here he was popular and wrote secular music, got along with the duke but dukes didn't really like the music • gets job as cantor in Leipzig and wrote music for churches, ceramony music and taught young boys, side jobs (writing music for funerals) performed a lot • Very prolific- assimilated a wide variety of styles, adapted music, studied different styles and wrote pieces to imitate • master of fugues • many genres ( except opera) • Well-tempered clavier • Idea of half step from next • equal temperment • just adjustment (tuned to particular key) ( made it hard to play in different keys • encyclopedias- well tempered clavier is kinda like this • Fugue was a statement about different ways to express musical ideas • fugue is a virtuostic display • Bach is unique in fugue expression Fugue • Subject • answer • countersubject • exposistion • episode • stretto • anaylsis Lutheran Cantata • Large-scale liturgical works • Bach had to write several hundred • Bach followed this form: ◦ chora
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