Philosophy 2032F/G Study Guide - Final Guide: Hidden Variable Theory, Wave Packet, Event Horizon
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1. Geodistics in special relativity
Timelike geodesic: The timelike curve connecting two events of greatest proper time.
2. Galileos principle of objects to free fall and how it is related to special relativity?
Galileo, who articulated the first "relativity principle" in the seventeenth century. In
generating his relativity principle, Galileo removed the distinction between
stationary and moving observers, arguing that people on earth cannot tell if they
are really at rest or if they are moving with the rotation of the earth each day. To
demonstrate this, Galileo used the example of a cannonball falling from the top of
a ship's mast. He noted that the cannonball will land at the base of the mast
whether the ship is moving steadily through the ocean, or whether it is at rest in a
dock. Even if they observe the falling ball, people on the ship cannot tell if they
are really at rest or if they are moving with the ship. They cannot distinguish their
state of rest from the ship's state by observing motion that takes place within the
"reference frame" of the ship. In other words, a person at rest on the deck of a ship
cannot determine whether the ship is at rest or moving at a steady speed through
the ocean by observing actions that happen on the ship itself. That person must
observe the ship relative to its surrounding environment in order to make such a
3. Revive statistical mechanics that went into the background work of quantum
Ideal gas Law, Diffusion, Browlie
4. Why Einstein used quanta?
Einstein used quanta because he concluded that light and gas obeyed the same laws at
high frequencies. Photoelectric effect- this effect showed that high frequency light
was needed to knock of cathodes. This showed that light behaved in a different
wave. When low frequency light hit the wall it wouldn’t have enough quanta
energy but when high frequency did it would.
5. You need to know qualitatively how time dialation works?
Since speed is equal to distance over time and light is a constant there needs to be
altercations to the equation when working with the speed of light. For example if
the distance increase the time needs to decreae to make up for this. And if the time
increases then to the length has to decrease to make up for this to. Can use
hyperplanes of simultaneity to judge telative time dilations. Twin paradox etc.
Special relativity: the laws of physics are the same in all inertial references, and
the speed of light is constant.
6. How Schawrazchild spacetime works and what can it be used for?
It is a universe where it looks like Minoskwi spacetime has you get closer ot
infinity. It has a central point in space where curvature around it is symmetrical.
Good spacetime around the sun ( assume no sun doesn’t rotate or electrical
Einstein had two problems with this spacetimes. First from the empirical date they
had at that time the universe was filled with equal distribution of stars. Second he
likes a fixed spacetimes depending on matter distribution based on General
relativity. Einstein didn’t like the arbitrariness of infinity when you reached closer
to infinity as you predicted a curvature without knowing the mass distribution.
7. Need to know the properties of the Einstein universe and what it can be used for?
He abolished spatial infinity. He did this by introduction a new constant in his
equations. It contains a uniform mass distribution so that matter is at rest and
geometry of space slices are unchanging with time. Overall is it s 5none geometry
with no infinity and space curving back onto itself. The space time is
Homogeneous with the same spatial curvature in all directions. It is spatially
isotropic, meaning it is the same in every direction of spatial direction. Einstein
added a constant to his equation in order to supply the missing curvature needed
for his universe:
Summed of Space curvate plus lamba= matter density
De sitter arugued that this lamba actually expanded the universe without matter
despite its intentions.
The lamba is a repulsive force that cancels out the gravitational force that
would be present in his spacetime so that his spacetime would not collapse.
Lamda was changed to show that spacetime=-lambda, it behaves like an odd
matter that expands the matter in the universe.
Time Travel Universe (Einstein Universe)- If you take the cylinder and have the
one dimension time on the surface you can go forward and meet youself in the
future. Grandfather Paradox. The grandfathers assasion would not occur. (global
8. What do different type of geodesic deviation say about different kind of
Spherical Geometry- Positive Curvature- 5NONE- Lines connect back to
themselves. Triangle- Sum More then 180 degrees. Perpindiculars
Converge(diverge slower then expected)
Euclidean Geometry- Flat- Infinite length- 180- perpendicular netiher converge or
Hyperbolic Geomtetry- Negative Curvature- 5MORE- Less then 180-
Perpindicualrs Diverge. (converge slower then expected)
9. What is superposition? And how do you interpret them?