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PHIL_1361_All_Questions and Answers for all the tests

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Philosophy 1020
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Reading 1 Questions Pages 316 1Early thinkers were driven by very specific puzzles What were 2 of these puzzles1What are things really like2How can we explain the process of change in things2There was a gradual recognition among early philosophers of what phenomenon about natureThales suggested that water was the cause of all things which led to other philosophers opinionsviews Ex Anaximander aperion1 thing was behind everything but he didnt know whatvery vague Anaximenes Air cause of all things etc 3What dominates Homers conception of nature Hesiod altered the concept of godsfate He recognized the gods to a proper dependability He emphasizes on the impersonal operation of the moral law of the universe 4What step did Hesiods work take which moved it past the work of Homer with respect to nature The step was taken by 3 Milesian Philosophers Thales AnaximanderAnaximenesThey began to ask new questionsStopped askingwho questionsstarted asking what how questionsThis lead to a more scientific way of thinking5What is the important thing to keep in mind about the earliest Greek PhilosophersEarly philosophers known as naturalists Started to ask a new set of questions which led to many new ways of looking at thingsEarliest Philosophers started answering like Natural Reason can figure out what is true about the worldit doesnt need any helpA Commitment to Abstraction was behind experiences theyre certain patterns that work in realityAbstraction the capacity to see beyondbehind experiences Reading 2 Questions the SophistsSocrates Pages 26401 The text points out that with the Sophists and Socrates Philosophy changed characterIt shifted away from concerns about nature to concerns about human knowingWhy did this transition take place Instead of asking large cosmic questions about the ultimate principle of things they asked questions about moral behaviourThey started asking basic ethical questions2 The Sophists because of their multicultural experience raised questions about the origin of human convictionsIn so doing they forced thoughtful Athenians to choose between two possible sources of such convictionsWhat are those two sources1 To consider whether their ideascustoms were founded upon truth or on conventional ways of behaving2 Was Athenian distinction between Greeksbarbarians as well as that between mastersslaves based on evidence or simply prejudice 3 If Socrates was to be successful in overcoming the relativism and skepticism of the Sophists he had to discoverwhat they concluded that truth is not real it is just what the community feels is the truthhe has to discover some secure foundation upon which to build an structure of knowledge 4 What for Socrates is the soulThe soul to him was the capacity for intelligencecharacter it was a persons conscious personality that within us in virtue of which we are pronounced wise or foolish good or badThe soul is the structure of personality
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