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Metaphysics and Ethics NOTES.docx

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Philosophy 1020
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Philosophy Midterm 2Metaphysics and EthicsMetaphysicsAristotlemetaphysics aka first philosophy or first questionsStudy of the most basic questions about reality and what isWhat is realoUniversals or particularsoThe nature of numbersWhere do numbers existWhere do elephants existoWhat sorts of things are numbersPhysical objectsnoNumbers are used to count objectsMental objectsnoMental objections like thoughts or dreamsIf that were true we would each have our own private image no numbers before mindsNumbers are real are more like objects of thought and reasonNumbers existed before minds existedoPlatos FormsFormspublic nonphysical nonspatial objectsProperties of formsThey dont perishThey dont changeArent perceived are knownWe can be completely certain about themCause the physical existence of things and their propertiesThe scope of formsForms are not just numbers but general conceptsUniversal ideas such as a tree or yellow or horse etcYou can only see an individual instance of yellowBut you can only THINK of the form yellowTHE forms are more real than the individuals perception of the formsoThe twice divided lineThe visible world vs the intelligible worldoAllegory of the cavePrisoners cannot see real object only shadows and mistake that for realityoIdealismEntities as forms existPlato said the things that we feel are not ontologically real but just the experience of numerous essence our sense can never revealNominalismoNominalismThe idea that universals god horse yellow etc are not existent things but wordsThe real things are the concrete particularsNominalism challenges that universals are real public objectsoHumes Two Propositions1 The mind cannot form any notion of quality or quantity without forming a precise notion of the degrees of eachYour idea of red is a particular shade of redThree arguments for this propositionMy idea of a line is an idea of a line of a determinate length
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