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physiology sample exam questions.doc

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Department
Physiology
Course
Physiology 2130
Professor
Paul Gillespie
Semester
Fall

Description
Physiology 1020 Sample questions for December 2008 1. In a typical nerve cell, the ion that has a higher concentration inside compared to outside is (A) Na+ (B) K+ (C) Ca++ (D) Cl- (E) None of the above are correct Answer - B 2. The falling phase (repolarization) of the action potential in a nerve cell depends upon the opening of (A) voltage-regulated chloride channels (B) voltage-regulated potassium channels (C) voltage-regulated sodium channels (D) chemical-regulated sodium channels (E) chemical-regulated potassium channels Answer – B 3. The peak of the action potential of a typical nerve cell does not reach the equilibrium potential for Na+ because (A) K+ voltage gated channels close (B) The Na+/K+ pump shuts down during the action potential (C) K+ is beginning to move out of the cell (D) the Na+ voltage gated channels are beginning to close (E) both C and D are correct Answer – E 4. The function of ATP in a muscle involves all the following except (choose the incorrect answer(s)) (A) the active uptake of Ca into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (B) the release of the actin-myosin cross bridges (C) the energizing of the myosin head units (D) the active release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (E) both A and D are incorrect Answer – D 5. Rigor mortis occurs primarily because (A) Ca can no longer be pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (B) action potentials no longer travel down the transverse (T) tubules (C) acetylcholine is no longer released from the motor nerve (D) myosin cannot be released from actin when the muscle cell runs out of ATP (E) none of the above are correct Answer - D ++ 6. If all the Ca were removed from inside all the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a muscle, which of the following would occur? (A) Electrical stimulation of the nerve would lead to an action potential in the nerve followed by a muscle contraction. (B) Electrical stimulation of the nerve would lead to an action potential in the nerve but no release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminal. (C) Electrical stimulation of the nerve would lead to an action potential in the nerve but no muscle contraction. (D) Electrical stimulation of the nerve would lead to an action potential in the nerve followed by a muscle contraction but no relaxation. (E) Direct electrical stimulation of the muscle will produce a muscle contraction. Answer - C 7. Increasing the force of a muscle contraction can be achieved by (A) increasing the number of motor units being recruited (B) increasing the amount of Ca++ released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (C) increasing the number of action potentials per second that travel down the transverse (T) tubules (D) increasing the frequency of action potentials on the motor nerve (E) all the above are correct Answer – E 8. Which of the following statements about the cardiovascular system is/are correct? (A) The pulmonary circulation contains 5% of the total blood volume (TBV) (B) Arteries and arterioles of the systemic circulation contain 10% of the total blood volume (TBV) (C) Capillaries are the resistance and distribution vessels of the systemic circulation (D) 70% of the total blood volume (TBV) is found in the venules and veins of the systemic circulation (E) both B and D are correct Answer – E 9. An increase in flow through a tube can be caused by (A) an increase in the pressure gradient (B) an increase in the resistance in the tube (C) a decrease in the radius of the tube (D) an increase in the length of the tube (E) both A and C are correct Answer – A 10. Intercalated disks found on myocardial contractile cells (A) are responsible for producing the pacemaker potential (B) allow for cell-to-cell transmission of the action potential (C) store the Ca++ inside the muscle cells (D) pump K+ into the cell (E) none of the above are correct Answer – B 11. Which of the following areas of the heart are capable of generating action potentials spontaneously? (A) the sinoatrial (SA) node (B) the atrioventricular (AV) node (C) the Bundle of His (D) Purkinje fibers (E) All the above are correct Answer – E 12. The action potential of the sinoatrial (SA) node is DIFFERENT from the typical action potential in a nerve because (A) the SA node has no resting membrane potential (RMP) (B) the repolarizing phase of the SA node action potential is caused by Na+ flowing out of the cell (C) when at rest, the Na+ concentration gradient is reversed in the SA node cells (high concentration on the inside and low on the outside) (D) the is no threshold to reach in the SA node cells (E) Both C and D are correct Answer – A 13. The Bundle of His (A) is a “nodal” group of myocardial cells in the heart (B) propagates the action potential at a speed of 0.05 m/sec (C) transmits the action potential from the atrioventricular (AV) node to the atrial muscle (D) has a left and right bundle branch that travel to the base of the heart (E) both A and C are correct Answer – D 14. During the cardiac cycle, the period of atrial contraction (A) comes directly before the period of ventricular contraction (B) is the period to time when most (70%) of the ventricle actually fills with blood (C) begins with the P wave (D) comes directly after the period of isovolumetric ventricular relaxation (E) both B and C are correct Answer – C 15. The pressure in the aorta is always greater than the pressure in the left ventricle -EXCEPT during the period of (A) atrial contraction (B) isovolumetric ventricular contraction (C) ventricular contraction (D) isovolumetric ventricular relaxation (E) ventricular relaxation Answer – C 16. Stimulating the parasympathetic system (PNS) to the heart will (A) increase the slope of the pacemaker potential (B) release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (C) increase the amount of Na+ leaving the cell (D) slow the heart rate (E) both B and D are correct Answer – E 17. An increase in heart rate can be produced by (A) increasing the amount of Na+ and Ca++ entering the SA nodal cells during the pacemaker potential (B) releasing the neurotransmitter norepinephrine onto the cells of the SA node (C) increasing the slope of the pacemaker potential (D) the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) (E) all the above are correct Answer – E 18. An average 25-year-old individual was exercising at their maximum intensity (resulting in a maximum heart rate). Given the following data, calculate this individuals cardiac output. Note: in order to calculate this person’s maximal heart rate, use the following equation: max heart rate = 220 - age End diastolic volume (EDV) = 230 ml End systolic volume (ESV) = 60 ml Systolic Pressure = 185 mmHg Diastolic Pressure = 80 mmHg The cardiac output for this person is (A) 11.7 Liters (B) 33.15 Liters (C) 36.5 Liters (D) 37.4 Liters (E) 44.85 Liters Answer – B 19.
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