Physiology 1021 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Extracellular Fluid, Fluid Compartments, Feedback

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The Excitable Cell:
Physiology:
The study of normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts
Organs that are Continuous with the External Environment:
o Respiratory
o Digestive
o Urinary
o Reproductive
Homeostasis:
Ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment
Dynamic, self-regulatory process involving all organs, tissues and cells of the body
What happens when the body fails to maintain homeostasis?
-Pathological conditions or disease can develop
How does the body maintain homeostasis?
-Detects and responds to changes in its internal environment to keep it in an acceptable range
Explain a control system and how the two control system work:
-Control systems monitor certain markers
a) Local Control:
When change happens, specialized cells sense and take action that affects the
surrounded area where they are located
Characterized by a localized/restricted response
b) Long-distance Control:
More complex, involve multiple components
Positive or negative feedback loops
Negative Feedback Control Systems:
Only feedback loop that maintains homeostasis
Measure the existing factor of some value and compare it to a selected set point value
then employ the difference of these two values to initiate physiological changes that
return the factor closer to the set point value
Ex- body temperature drops, detected by receptor cells, compared to set body temperature
value, negative body temperature difference initiates shivering or putting on warmer
clothes that would raise body temperature back to set point
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Feedback loop:
1. Initial stimulus
2. Response
3. Decrease stimulus
4. Stop before it goes the other way
Normal Blood PH:
7.38-7.42
Normal Blood Glucose:
4-6 mmol/L before a meal
Negative Feedback Flowchart:
1. Stimulus (drives the loop)
2. Receptors detect
3. Integrating center decides change needed (mainly hypothalamus)
4. Effectors do the change
5. Response- did it change? If not, repeats flowchart
Distribution of Body Fluids:
1. Intracellular
-Fluid inside of the cells
-Cytoplasm
-28L (67%)
2. Extracellular:
-Fluid outside of the cells
-Interstitial + plasma
-14L (33%)
a) Interstitial
-Serves as a transition between the external environment
Chemical Composition of the Fluids:
Substance
Outside
Inside
Sodium
Greatly larger
Smaller
Potassium
Greatly smaller
Larger
Calcium
Somewhat larger
Smaller
Chloride
Greatly larger
Smaller
Proteins
Somewhat smaller
Larger
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Substance
Plasma
Intersitial
Intracellular
Sodium
Middle
Largest
Smallest
Potassium
Smallest
Middle
Largest
Calcium
Largest
Middle
Smallest
Chloride
Middle
Largest
Smallest
Proteins
Middle
Smallest
Largest
Ion Composition of a Cell:
Salty- More Na+, Cl- outside
Banana- More K+ inside
Organelles of the Cell and Their Functions:
o Nucleus- control center, regulates gene expression, stores nucleic acids, DNA storage,
transcription
o Rough ER- protein synthesis, protein sorting
o Mitochondria- powerhouse, energy via cellular respiration
o Smooth ER- lipid synthesis, detoxification
o Golgi- protein packaging, sorting and trafficking
o Lysosome- breakdown of macromolecules, cellular waste and debris
o Centrioles- initiates cell division by forming spindle fibers
o Cytoskeleton- supports cell structure, protein and organelle trafficking, cell division
The Cell Membrane Function:
Interstitial fluid and plasma compositions= the same
Intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid= dramatically different
Why?
-Intracellular fluid is seperated from the interstitial fluid by a cell membrane
Three Main Functions of the Cell Membrane:
1. Physical isolation
2. Regulation of exchange with the environment
3. Communication of the cell with its outside environment via receptors
Cell Membrane Structure:
Fatty acid chains are hydrophobic which is why there is a major permeability barrier to
water and water-soluble substances
Fat-soluble substances can penetrate this portion of the membrane with ease
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Document Summary

The study of normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts. Organs that are continuous with the external environment: respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive. Ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. Dynamic, self-regulatory process involving all organs, tissues and cells of the body. Detects and responds to changes in its internal environment to keep it in an acceptable range. Explain a control system and how the two control system work: Control systems monitor certain markers: local control: When change happens, specialized cells sense and take action that affects the surrounded area where they are located. Characterized by a localized/restricted response: long-distance control: Measure the existing factor of some value and compare it to a selected set point value then employ the difference of these two values to initiate physiological changes that return the factor closer to the set point value.

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