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Political Science 1020E- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 96 pages long!)


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Charles Jones
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Political Science 1020E
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
Political Science 1020E
Lecture 1: The State
LECTURE PLAN
Define the State
Make Sense of the Dualism of the State
Chart Changes in the State Since its Emergence in History
Determine Why the State Acts and What We Should Let States Do for Us
THE STATE
States haven’t always existed
Rival forms: Cities, traditional (personal) kingdoms, empires (extended territory, Holy Roman Empire)
o Why did the state as a political model win?
o Not perennial or universal, it did have competitors
State model proved superior after 1500
o Consequence the state developed in Europe and has spread throughout the globe
State model now universal
States may not always exist
DEFINING THE STATE
Defining the state relates to the backdrop in which we do things
First approach Hegelian Idealism:
o Gradual fulfillment over time of human consciousness and ideas
o Ideas in motion, more important ideas determine the circumstances of history
Development
o Family: “Particular Altruism” (confined to your own family)
o Civil Society: “Universal Egoism” [moving beyond family into a civil engagement, no ethical content]
According to Hegel, the state brings these two together, the most complex ethical form that can exist
State as end of history
o The state generates universality and common rules that we respect and allow to govern us, maximum space for human freedom and
autonomy
o Heywood: Uncritical reference for the state
Woodrow Wilson state idealist
Second approach Functionalism: You will get only what you need
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2
State as a provider of order and stability
o What threatens order and stability?
Haywood: What threatens order is class conflicts (ex. Neo-Marxists), the state maintains class peace
o The functionalist explanation: The state is whatever seems to work
Third approach Organizational:
1. State as specific set of Institutions: bureaucracy, military, police, courts, etc.
2. Why treat these collectively as the state?
3. Post-Hegelian political scientists rejected the concept, they believed it was abstract, distracting, unnecessary
Organizational Features of the state:
1. Territory demarcated area, defensible borders (ex. Donald Trump)
2. People a settled community defined by territorial boundaries (recognized community)
3. Sovereignty final/absolute authority w/I territory (no superior power)
4. Public Institutions and roles (established treasuries) as opposed to private (monarch)
5. Domination Max Weber: monopoly of coercion w/I a given territory
6. Legitimacy Makes domination easier to swallow
Fourth Approach International:
Effective government
Relations w/ other states
It’s all international and internal (there is no strong distinction)
o Territory: A consolidation and control within, defense against intrusion from without
o Sovereignty: Absolute authority w/i territory, freedom from external constraint
THE DUALITY OF THE STATE
It protects its people from each other and also from external threats
Its borders define what is internal and external to start with
THE EMERGENCE OF THE DUAL STATE
Uses war to explain the emergence of the state/military component
A. War allows people to build states
1. Winners (ambitious actors) expand territorial control more effective control
2. Feudal arrangements break down
3. Internal rivals removed (rid the war lords holding significant power, preventing them from collecting revenue)
4. New institutions emerge and grow (Charles Tilly), build up civil service to support army
Significant b/c: The most important driver of states is the pressure in Europe to compete militarily, Europeans fought so much that they built states.
B. The Protestant Reformation: Breaks Christianity in half, makes way for the state
1. Split the universal church which was the leading rival to state (Church was an overwhelmingly legitimate organization)
2. Religious warfare, divided societies
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