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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Exam Review Ideologies  This is the system of ideas with histories  It aims to shape social change  How does (the particular ideology) explain, evaluate, orient humans to the world (who am I?), political program  Every ideology has certain views of freedom Brian Barry on Liberal Ideas  Fundamental equality of all human beings: inequality is an artifact (we created it, it was not already within nature) – we are all morally equal  Every doctrine should be open to critical scrutiny  No religious dogma can be held with certainty Liberalism  Origins of liberalism- medieval Europe consisted of the hierarchical system, liberalism was the challenging idea to this classical system.  Liberalism was a revolutionary idea in England, America, and France  Hobbes, Locke (individuals have rights, state needs to protect these rights), Paine (American revolution), Jefferson (Declaration of Independence, and the French Declaration Adam Smith:  Capitalism  The Role of the state  Distributive Justice Later Debates:  Spencer is a neo-classical liberalist  Green’s welfare Liberalism – if you taker individual freedom to be the most important thing, then you are going to have to address certain obstacles (poverty, ignorance)  Rawls (welfare) vs. Nozick (neo-classical) Conservatism in General:1  Traditionalism  We should be skeptic about political knowledge  Organic conception of society and the state (we are all part of one organism) Conservatism in General: 2  Classical conservatives: Flawed human beings, hierarchy, tradition, anti- revolution  Contemporary conservatives: small government, free markets, strong military Burke:  Human nature- we are flawed (unequal)  Society – we are not separate and the idea of a social contract does not make sense  Revolution and Reform- he’s against revolution but he’s in favor of gradual reform  Government and Representation- most famous for saying a political representative should not just be a representative 19th century conservatism:  De Maistre spoke about the throne and alter  Catholic Church (Pope Pius)  Culture Conservatism – tended to believe that there is a certain hierarchy between individuals Conservatism Today:  Traditional Conservatism  Individualist Conservatism  Neo-conservatism, The religious rights  Posner- three types of conservatives; economic, security, social-religious Socialism in General: 1  Property should be owned by society – we should move away from private property  Basic goods should be produced with the aim of benefiting all  Against capitalism and its unequal distribution of power (capitalism is anti egalitarian) Socialism in General: 2  Industrial revolution led to dangerous, difficult, undignified, factory work  Moral objections to exploitation, poverty and greed Major Figures:  More, Saint-Simon, Owen  Karl Marx – alienation (different types), theory of history (what is driving history), views on economics, human nature Marx’s Theory of History  Level of developmen
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