Psychology 1000 Study Guide - University Of Western Ontario, Decay Theory, Pseudoword

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
Department
Professor
Human Memory and Information Processing
Memory and Information Processing
Acquisition of Information
Serial Anticipation Learning
Paired Associate Learning
Mediating Strategies meaningfulness, frequency, formation of images,
schema, pronouncibility, rhyming etc.
Encoding specificity and distinctiveness
Transfer positive, zero, negative
Verbal Learning and Associated Variables
Verbal Mediators commonalities
Rehearsal maintenance, elaborative
Natural Language mediators stimulus equivalent, response equivalent
Retrieval
Forgetting
Measuring Retention recall, recognition, relearning (savings)
Theories of Forgetting decay, interference, repression
Types of Interference proactive, retroactive
Ways to improve Retrieval over learning, organization, chunking
Models of Memory and Info Processing
The theories and processes applies: an examination of the serial position
curve
Acquisition of Information
Materials and methods
The bulk of research on memory has employed verbal materials
They range from nonsense syllables to words to sentences to paragraphs
This range of materials allows for manipulation of the amount of meaning in
a stimuli
Herrmann Ebbinghaus
First published study of memory in 1885
Invented the nonsense syllable
Two major types CVC & CCC
CVC consonant-vowel-consonant
CCC- consonant CVC consonant-vowel-consonant
CCC- consonant-consonant-consonant
Purpose was to attempt to eliminate the effects of prior knowledge on
learning of materials
Procedure - Serial Anticipation Learning
Read a list of nonsense syllables to the beat of a metronome to insure each
item received the same exposure for study
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On all exposures following the initial exposure he attempted to form an
association between the current stimuli and the next stimuli on the list
Serial Anticipation Learning
Items are shown individually
All items on a list are shown once to constitute a single trial
On each subsequent trial the subject attempts to anticipate what the next
item will be from viewing the current item (i.e. each item is thus both a
stimulus and response)
Learning is declared complete when the subject is able to reach a specified
Criterion (i.e. make 2 completely correct asses through the list)
Measurement
What is measured is the number of trials until criterion is reached
Also the number of errors per item is measured
The latter measure is taken to insure items are of approximately equal
difficulty
Results
Items at the beginning and end of lists are more easily learned
Words are more easily learned with this method than either CVC and CCC
stimuli
The method also provides for a measure of retention called Savings
Paired Associate Learning
Main principle is to establish and association between two items
One item serves as the stimuli for the recall of the other item (i.e., an item is
either a stimulus item or a response item never both as in serial anticipation
learning)
The major employer of this technique, using words, has been Dr. Allan Paivia,
at UWO currently holding the position of Professor Emeritus, and one of the
top cognitive psychologists in the world
He and his associates utilize this procedure to examine the differences
between concrete and abstract words
Procedure
For learning Pairs of items are presented for an equal amount of time per
pair
Pairs consist of CC (concrete-concrete); CA (concrete-abstract); AC(abstract-
concrete); AA (abstract-abstract)
An example of a Concrete item would be Chair
An example of an Abstract item would be Justice
During Retention testing the first item of each pair (the stimulus) is
presented and subjects attempt to recall the second item (the response). For
example:
Pair Type Stimuli Response
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CC Chair Broom
CA Door Justice
AC Truth Dog
AA Belief Honesty
•Results
In order of recall accuracy Concrete items are recalled better than Abstract
items
The ranking of all possible pairs is as follows: CC pairs; CA pairs; AC pairs; AA
pairs
This indicates that Concrete items are better as Stimulus items than Abstract
items
Paivio explained this as a consequence of representational differences for the
two stimulus types
The theory is known as DUAL-CODING
This theory postulates two representational systems exist independently
although they are referentially linked
SAL & PA Review
SAL Words learned easier & remembered better than Nonsense syllables
(CVC & CCC)
Items at beginning & end of lists learned easier & remembered better than
mid list
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Document Summary

Mediating strategies meaningfulness, frequency, formation of images, schema, pronouncibility, rhyming etc. Natural language mediators stimulus equivalent, response equivalent. Measuring retention recall, recognition, relearning (savings) Theories of forgetting decay, interference, repression. Ways to improve retrieval over learning, organization, chunking. The theories and processes applies: an examination of the serial position curve. The bulk of research on memory has employed verbal materials. They range from nonsense syllables to words to sentences to paragraphs. This range of materials allows for manipulation of the amount of meaning in a stimuli. First published study of memory in 1885. Two major types cvc & ccc. Purpose was to attempt to eliminate the effects of prior knowledge on learning of materials. Read a list of nonsense syllables to the beat of a metronome to insure each item received the same exposure for study. On all exposures following the initial exposure he attempted to form an association between the current stimuli and the next stimuli on the list.

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