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Midterm

# Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Little Albert Experiment, Tabula Rasa, Wilhelm Wundt

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
John Campbell
Study Guide
Midterm

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Appendix
Descriptive Statistics:
-Summarize and describes the characteristics of a set (distribution) of scores
1. Construct a frequency distribution: how many participants got each score
2. Convert into histogram: graph of frequency distribution (column or bar graph)-
shows how frequently the score occurred
Measures of Central Tendency:
-Describes a distribution in terms of a single statistic that is typical of the whole sample
a) Mode:
-Most frequent occurring score
b) Mean:
-Average of the set of scores
-Add all the scores and divide it by the number of scores provided
c) Median:
-Point that divides the distribution in half when the scores are arranged from lowest to
highest
-Half of the scores above it, half below it- middle point
Measures of Variability:
a) Range:
-Highest score minus lowest score
b) Squared Deviation:
-Square the deviation (no minus signs)
c) Variance:
-The mean of the squared deviation scores
d) Standard Deviation:
-square root of the variance
Correlation:
Relationships among variables
Shown by the correlation coefficient “r”
r can be between -1.0 and +1.0
value of 0= no relationship
closer to +1.0 degree= stronger relationship
closet to -1.0 degree= stronger relationship
+ direction= positive correlation
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- direction = negative correlation
- direction means that one variable increases while the other decreases
+ means that both variable increase
Null Hypothesis:
-observed differences are by chance, not relevant
Chapter 1
Psychology:
Scientific study of behaviour and the mind
Behaviour:
Actions and responses that we can directly observe, requires critical thinking
Mind:
Internal states and processes such as thoughts and feelings
Key Behaviorists:
Wilhelm Wundt:
-Established the first psychology lab
-Along with Titchener, established the structuralism approach
-Mind can be studied by breaking it down into basic components
-Structuralism
Titchener:
-Worked with Watson to establish the structuralism approach
-Structuralism
Watson:
-You can groom an individual to become any way you want as long as you manipulate
their environment accordingly
-Fears learned, not inherited
-Environment more powerful then genetics
-Little Albert experiment
-Behavioural
Skinner:
-Causes of behaviour reside in our outside world
-Did not deny that people have thoughts or feelings
- Behavioural
Thorndike:
-Organisms learn from consequences of their actions
- Behavioural
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Pavlov:
-Learning occurs with events that are associated with each other
- Behavioural
Locke:
-All ideas and knowledge are gained empirically through the senses
-We are born a blank slate
-Tabula rasa
-Human nature is shaped by our environment
-British Empiricism and Behavioural
Freud:
-Founded Psychoanalysis
-Unconscious part of the mind influences behaviour
-Psychodynamic
Evidence:
Empirical Evidence- gained through experience and observation, manipulating and
then observing the outcomes
Systematic- scientific research needs to be systematic, preformed according to a
system of rules and conditions
Mind-Body:
Relations between mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily
systems
Interplay between psychological and biological levels of analysis
Nurture-Nature:
Is our behaviour shaped by nature (our biological make-up) or nurture (our
environment and learning history)?
Nature and nurture interact- not one or the other
The Little Albert Experiment: Baby and Rat
Conducted by Watson
Behavioural perspective to the test
Environment more powerful then genetics, fears are learned and not inherited
Fear can be taught through conditioning
Collectivist vs Individualistic: The Sociocultural Perspective
Collectivist:
o Success of the group is rewarded or seen more valuable than the individual
success
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