Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Representativeness Heuristic, Availability Heuristic, Mental Age

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Reasoning
Two types of reasoning underlie our problem solving and decisions made:
Deductive reasoning we reason from top down, from general principles to a
conclusion about a specific case the basis of formal math
Inductive reasoning bottom up fashion, starting with specific facts and trying to
develop a general principal
Differences: deductive conclusions are always correct if the premises are true, but
inductive reasoning leads to likelihood rather than certainty
Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning:
Several factors may prevent us from selecting the information needed to draw sound
conclusions.
Distraction by Irrelevant Information:
It is hard to distinguish from information that is relevant and irrelevant
Failure to Apply Deductive Rules:
Sometimes knowledge is not enough, wisdom is needed to know when to apply the
knowledge
Belief Bias:
Belief bias the tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of own personal beliefs
Problem Solving:
Problem solving has 4 stages and how well we carry out each stage determines our
success in solving the problem
Understanding, or Framing, the Problem:
How we mentally represent, or frame a problem can make a huge difference on
outcomes
Testing the Solutions:
Mental set the tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past can result
in less effective problem solving
Evaluating the Results:
The final stage of problem solving
Can lead to the development of additional problem solving principles that may be
applicable to future problems
ProblemSolving Schemas:
Problem solving schemas mental blueprints or steps for solving specialized classes
of problems
Once problem solving schemas are mastered, we do not have to engage in a step by step
process, we know what to do
Experts rely on schemas they have developed through experience
Experts have developed a great many schemas to guide problem solving in their field
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PSYCH 1000 Full Course Notes
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Document Summary

Reasoning: two types of reasoning underlie our problem solving and decisions made, deductive reasoning we reason from (cid:498)top down(cid:499), from general principles to a conclusion about a specific case the basis of formal math. Inductive reasoning (cid:498)bottom up(cid:499) fashion, starting with specific facts and trying to: differences: deductive conclusions are always correct if the premises are true, but develop a general principal inductive reasoning leads to likelihood rather than certainty. Stumbling blocks in reasoning: several factors may prevent us from selecting the information needed to draw sound conclusions. It is hard to distinguish from information that is relevant and irrelevant. Failure to apply deductive rules: sometimes knowledge is not enough, wisdom is needed to know when to apply the knowledge. Belief bias: belief bias the tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of own personal beliefs. Problem solving: problem solving has 4 stages and how well we carry out each stage determines our success in solving the problem.