Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Albert Bandura, Null Hypothesis, Gestalt Psychology

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22 Nov 2012
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Exam Review 23/10/2009 23:09:00
Psychology: the scientific study of behavior actions thoughts feelings
reactions and the factors that influence it
Basic research vs applied research
Lab or real world (for interest) vs practical problems
4 goals of psychology
describe
explain causes
predict
control
6 perspectives
Biological
ounderstanding behavior in terms of biological process,
evolution, genetics
mind-body dualism: the mind is a spiritual entity not
subject to the physical laws that govern the body
monism: mind and body are one and mental events are
simply a product of physical events
oCharles Darwin:
Natural selection
Survival of the fittest
Nothing special about humans meaning that
humans can be studied scientifically
Do not have to be a positive outcome
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oEvolutionary psychology: focuses on the role of evolution in
the development of human behavior
Cognitive
oHumans as information-processing problem solvers
oThoughts influence emotions and behavior
William Wundt:
Founder of structuralism
Introspection: verbal reporting on immediate
experience
Established first psychological lab
Hermann von Ebbinghaus: first empirical study of
Williams James (functionalism)
Studied function or purposes of consciousness
Wolfgang Kohler (gestalt psychology)
The whole is greater than the sum of the
parts
Psychodynamic
oSearches for the causes of behavior within the works of the
mind
oFreud
Hysteria
Attention to unconscious influences importance of
sexual drives even in nonsexual spheres and the impact
of early childhood experiences
Defense Mechanisms Repression
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Behavioral
oemphasis on how the external environment shapes behavior
oJohn Locke: nothing can exist within the intellect that did not
have its origin in its senses (EMPIRICISM)
Tabula Rasa (blank tablet)
oJohn Watson: Rise of Behaviorism (empiricist)
Observable behavior
Humans are conditions of their environment
oSkinner; the environment rather than the individual
characteristics is the primary determinant of our behavior
oCognitive behaviorism: bridges the gap between behavior and
cognitive
Albert Bandura: we can learn new behaviors by
observing the actions of others and storing this
information in memory
Humanistic
oImportance of motives and freedom self actualization
oCarl Rogers
Client-centered approach to therapy
Social-cultural
Study of cultural differences and how culture is transmitted to
its members
Culture: enduring values, beliefs, behaviors and traditions
shared by a large group of people and passed on from one
generation to the next
Orientation toward individualism versus collectivism
represents one of the ways in which cultures can vary
Psychology:
What do psychologists do?
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