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Psychology 2030A/B Midterm: Psychology 2030A - Midterm 2

Course Code
David Vollick
Study Guide

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Nervous System
Central Nervous System
(Brain/Spinal Cord) Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous
(Involuntary Functions)
Sympathetic Nervous
(Active During Fight-or-Flight)
Parasympathetic Nervous
(Active During Rest and Digestion)
Somatic Nervous System
(Sensory and Voluntary Functions)
Chapter 4 - Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Trauma - and Stressor - related Disorders
Anxiety - a common emotion that is characterized by physical symptoms (faster heartbeat, tension) and
thoughts or worries that something bad will happen.
Future-oriented response (what if I mess up this speech?)
Can lead to obsessive-compulsive, trauma or stressor related disorders.
First must examine the emotion most closely related, fear.
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Central Nervous System - Brain and Spinal Cord.
Peripheral Nervous System - all the other nerves in your body.
Somatic Sensory Nervous System - sensory and voluntary motor functions.
Autonomic Nervous System - involuntary movements.
The Fight-or-Flight Response -
Fight or Flight - Your hypothalamus (the part of your brain that is responsible for recognizing
threatening situations and coordinating your response) sends a message to your adrenaline glands to
release the hormone adrenaline.
This is a discharge of the SNS
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) - active during fight-or flight. Dilates pupils and lungs, increases
heart rate, etc.
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) - returns body to normal resting state. Decreases heart rate,
blood pressure, respiration, etc.
Note; often Anxiety results in lower levels of physical reactivity. This is the opposite of fear stimulation.
Elements of Anxiety;
Panic Attack - an abrupt surge of intense fear or intense discomfort that reaches a peak within
minutes and is accompanied by four or more physical symptoms.
Worry - apprehensive negative expectations about the future that are considered t be
unreasonable in light of the actual situation.
Negative Reinforcement - You see a spider, you become anxious, you run. You feel better
because the fear went away, so next time you are more likely to run again.
Three Components of Anxiety....
1. Physical Symptoms (Physical)
2. Negative Cognitions/Subjective Distress (Mental)
3. Escape or Avoidance Behaviour (Behaviour)
Note; always remember.... anxiety becomes a disorder when it creates a functional impairment.
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Anxiety Disorders are more common in females than males. [note, girls may report more fears
instead of actually having more fears because of social acceptability stuff]
Common Fears; Infancy (falling over, sudden noises, heights), 1-2 (strangers, toilet, getting
injured), 3-5 (animals, monsters, dark, being alone), 6-9 (animals, lightning/thunder, school), 9-
12 (tests, health) 13+ (injuries, social interactions, world events)
Types of Anxiety Disorders;
Anxiety Disorders - have in common the physical, mental, and behavioural symptoms of regular anxiety.
Very common [31%] Most anxiety disorders develop early in life [average age 11] exert a substantial
cost on society [42B annually].
Panic Attacks - (above). Symptoms include heart palpitations, sweating, trembling, dizziness,
choking, chest pain, nausea etc.
Note; 28% of adults report having had a panic attack. Only 5% have panic disorder.
Panic Disorder -
A. Recurrent unexpected panic attacks. A panic attack is an abrupt surge... [read above] ... and
during which time four (or more) of the following symptoms occur.
1. palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate
2. sweating
3. trembling or shaking
4. sensations or shortness of breath or smothering
5. feelings of choking
6. chest pain for discomfort
7. Nausea or adominal distress
8. feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed or faint
9. chills or heat sensations
10. Paresthesias (numbness or tinging sensations)
11. Derealization (feelings of unreality) or Depersonalization (being detached from oneself)
12. fear of losing control or 'going insane'
13. fear of dying
Note; Culture-specific symptoms (tinnitus, neck soreness, headache,
uncontrollable screaming or crying) may be seen. These should not could as 1 of
the 4 symptoms.
B. At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one or both of the
1. Persistent concern or worry about additional panic attacks.
2. A change in behaviour related to the attacks
C. Disturbance not due to substance abuse
D. Disturbance not better explained by another mental disorder.
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