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Chapter 4- Psych notes .docx

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Psychology 2035A/B
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Chapter 4Coping Processes THE CONCEPT OF COPING Coping refers to efforts to master reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress Over 400 distinct coping techniquesFigure 41 p 105 14 categories of coping strategies It is most adaptive to use a variety of coping strategies most people rely on some more than others Ability to show coping flexibility and use multiple coping strategies related to increased resilience and decreased distress during stress Flexible copers can differentiate among stressful events in terms of controllability and impact important information to know choosing coping strategyCoping strategies vary in their adaptive valueConcept of defense mechanisms originally developed by Freud COMMON COPING PATTERNS OF LIMITED VALUE Giving upYoung man dumped by fiancereverts to alcohol abuse Associated with sadness and dejection Learned helplessness is passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive eventsoWas tested on animals using an shock and humans using noise both showed parallel results of passiveness when given an opportunity to escape oAdolescents associated with academic disengagement and depression oEnvironmental stressors ie Excessive noise crowding and traffic often produce syndrome similar to learned helplessness oPeoples cognitive interpretation of aversive events determines whether they develop learned helplessnessOccurs when ppl believe events are beyond their controlppl w pessimistic explanatory styleAttribute setbacks to personal inadequaciesReferred to as behavioral disengagement Increased distress However withdrawing effort from unattainable goals can be an effective coping strategy Acting Aggressively Road rage oMaladaptive way to deal with stress anxiety and hostility while drivingAggression is any behavior intended to hurt someone either physically or verbally Frustrationaggression hypothesis oProven wrong BUT said that aggression is always due to frustration oNo an inevitable link but frustration frequently elicits aggression Aggression can occur through displacement in which a person would lash out a someone unrelated to their frustration Aggressive responses to frustration are more likely if the person ruminates about being provokedif heshe has a depleted capacity for selfcontrol or if alcohol is involved Feelings of security and anonymity in ones personal space influence aggressive tendencies oIe aggressive driving more common among ppl who report territorial attachment to their cars Freud theorized that behaving aggressively could get pentup emotion out of ones sytem and thus be adaptiveoCatharsis release of emotional tensionMost studies show that behaving in an aggressive manner tends to fuel more anger and aggression opposite of what booksmagazines say Violent video gamesmedia increased aggression strong correlationoBrain reacts like its realActing aggressive has little value Indulging Yourself Indulgence reduced impulse control Developing alternative rewards when stressed ie stressinduced eating smoking gambling etcRelationship between stress and poor physical health might be attributed to unhealthy behaviors Internet addiction spending an inordinate amount of time on the internet and inability to control online use oRates higher in China than in US Blaming Yourself Tendency tog engage in negative selftalk in response to stressoCatastrophic thinking rooting in irrational assumptions oUnreasonable attribution of failures to personal shortcomings oFocus on negative feedback from others while ignoring favorable feedback oMake unduly pessimistic projections about future Associated with increased distress and depression for individuals who have experienced a variety of traumas ie sex assault war nat disasterBlaming yourself associated with increased anxiety and depression for those w serious health issues Counterproductive Using Defensive Coping Common response to stress NATURE OF DEFENCE MECHANISMSDefense mechanisms are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt A number of coping strategies fit this definition 49 have been noted Fig 45 p112 additional 5 defenses that people use with some regularityDM shield individual form emotional discomfort elicited by stressAnxiety is the 1 emotion guarded against oGuilt and dejection common Work through selfdeception
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