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Exam #1-Review.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2036A/B

Chapter 1: Interdisciplinary View of Health  Multiple Sclerosis (MS)-is a persistent neurological disease with episodes that can last for long periods of time—caused by damage to the nerve fibres in the body Chronic Illness—Persistent and lasts over time Physiological State—Person’s ability to physically perform his or her daily functions without limitations, restrictions, or impediments Holistic Health—as a state of being, influenced by physiological, psychological, emotional, and social factors Determinants of Health—primary or contributing factors that influence health outcomes Botany—Study of places and plant life—were important to health practices of Native American and Southern African cultures  Egyptian culture, a person’s health was influenced not only by anatomical systems but by scientific and spiritual beliefs Daoist Philosophy—determined that the harmonic balance of yin and yang The environment and the energy of life force called Qi (chi) were essential determinants of health  500 BCE—Aesculapian Theory—held that illness has spiritual orgins and required spiritual intervention, ritual cures, and mediations by priests  Cnidian Theory—stated that illness were associated with physical diseases and were unrelated to mental, spiritual or emotional well-being  Materia Medica—“Medicinal Properties of Plants”—plants provided the tools to address the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health of members of these cultures Ethnopharmacologists—researchers who study the medicinal practices of different cultures  Middle Ages—Rome experienced a significant loss of population—successive wave of st nd pandemics—1 and 2 Plagues of Justinian caused by a recurrent bacterial infection that remained in the population for over 200 years  End of the Middle Ages—Europe experienced a 3 major pandemic—Haemorrhagic Plague “Black Death” = 25 million deaths across the continent –just as West Europe was about to experience a Renaissance (cultural rebirth)  During Black Death physicians suggested that diseases were the result of environmental not spiritual factors—health policies were introduced to control the outbreak Many people were isolated and quarantined when diagnosed—buildings and houses were fumigated, and entire towns were burned Psychosomatic Medicine—examines the relationship among the physiological, psychological, physiological, social and behavioural influences on an individual’s health status—includes everything but 2 factors thought to be influential centuries ago – spiritual and environmental forces th  Increasing emphasis on physiological causes of illness in the 20 century, together with the prevailing popular view that psychosomatic illnesses were contrived, led to the decrease in support for the mind-body connection and health WHO—Health is a state of complete, physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity Models of Health and Well-Being: Biomedical Model: Illness is defined as a dysfunction of the body caused by microorganisms and resulting in illness or disability Biopsychosocial Model: Suggests that biological factors (bio) in addition to psychological influences (psycho) including emotions, social support, and personal traits, as well as sociological factors such as family, culture, and community also strongly affect overall wellbeing and health outcomes—the first modern model to address the physiological, psychological, and social determinants of health. o Rather than offering a balanced perspective that gives equal weight to biological, psychological, and sociological determinants of health, the Biopsychosocial model is criticized for being at its core a biological model---it overlooks environmental factors (physical) know to influence health and well-being Wellness Model: Spirituality & QOL—Spirituality refers to an individual’s perspective on the meaning of life and the impact of their values on their over-all well-being Health –Enhancing Behaviours—behaviours that will increase one’s positive health status Curanderismo—a religious and cultural belief system that informs health and wellness among many Latin American cultures Social Ecological Model: 1. Physical Environment—factors such as housing conditions, neighbourhood sanitation ECT 2. Health Systems—health care delivery organizations that provide access to care 3. Health Policy—Made up of the regulations that promote or protect the health of individuals in the community 4. Individual *** Any field of psychology rarely contains only one explanatory theory—thus the ecological model remains one of several currently in use • It is important to note that while there are many different types of universal systems of care, all share on common element: the systems ensure that all persons seeking medical or mental health services will receive care without regard to their income or economic status Chapter 2: Research Methods Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP)—a federal agency that monitors research involving human subjects, conducted an investigation of the John Hopkins study after learning of the death of Ellen Roche Epidemiology—the study of factors or determinants of health status among population groups and the use of that knowledge to help control the spread of health problems in population— attempt to determine the origin of a disease by identifying and examining the first/earliest known human infected—and determining the risk posed by the disease to current and future populations Mortality = refers to death Morbidity = refers to diseases that may contribute to mortality—diabetes Incidence- refers to the number of new cases of a disease in a specific population for a given time period Prevalence-total number of cases (old and new) of a specific disease in a population, also for a given time period Relative Risk-Express the risk to individuals of acquiring a specific disease—helps estimate the risk of acquiring a disease by persons who are members of the exposed group Distal- To explain distal causes of an illness, researchers may need to examine factors or events that predate the illness by months or perhaps years Quantitative Data-characterize numerically the health status of a community • The purpose of proximal and distal data is to explain the occurrence of the problem rather than to count the number of occurrences Qualitative Studies—goal of the researcher is to gather largely nonstatistical data that help to explain a behaviour or outcome in the environment in which it occurs—provides rich, contextual data that allows for an in-depth exploration and analysis of the health issue Case Studies—Allow for an in-depth analysis of rare or unique events –For example, case study methods are used often by epidemiologists when investigating new outbreaks of disease Focus Groups-Serve 4 main functions—to gather information, to generate insight, to explore a decision-making process and to encourage interactions that create new insights Interviews:  One-on-One—data collection technique that can allow for a range of responses according to the type of questions posed  Closed-Ended Questions—Questions offering a forced choice response, such as yes or no—researchers can obtain succinct responses to specific questions  Open-Ended Questions—Questions yielding descriptive responses that allow study participants to provide additional information that may offer important details about the persons behaviours Correlational Studies: Correlational Studies use Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r), a stat that describes the strength of the relationship between two variables—the correlation coefficient is expressed numerically as a value ranging from +1.00 to -- -1.00—correlations can be strongly positive (r=+1.00), strongly negative (r=-1.00) or totally unrelated—no correlation (r=0.00) Retrospective Analysis—analyzing data from an existing database --To demonstrate a positive correlation, both variables must move in the same direction, either both increase in value or both decrease in value –negative correlation—one variable decreases the other increases --Researchers who want to explore causal relationships between variables often turn to experimental research methods Experimental Studies: • A Null Hypothesis is an objective extension of the question that assume no relationship between exercise and stress—a null hypothesis would be—there is no effect of exercise on stress • Research Hypothesis—An objective extension of the question but one that assumes a relationship between the 2 variables Randomized Clinical Trials—Use one control and at least one experimental group to test the effects of a new medication, a therapeutic approach, or an apparatus as a treatment for a medical or mental illness • To address the ethical dilemma is through a pre-post-post-test design—both the experimental and control groups would receive the actual treatment, although not at the same time Quasi-Experimental Intervention—do not include control groups—unnesssary if a researcher is interested only in the impact of an intervention on the study participants—but loses the ability to compare outcomes of the intervention to another group • Outcome of the Nuremberg Trails was the Nuremberg Code of 1947—a list of 10 conditions that regulated the use of human subjects in research—the first formal document defining the rules of conduct for research involving human subjects • Institutional Review Board (IRB) The IRB is a system of national and local research review boards responsible for ensuring the protection of human subjects in research • The Belmont Report identified 3 fundamental, ethical principles for the protection of human subjects 1) Respect for Persons—recognizing the dignity and autonomy of individuals 2) Beneficence—Requiring researchers to protect individuals further—max potential benefits and min the potential harm 3) Justice—Requiring the fair and just treatment of participants, the absence of bias in selection for or exclusion from research • 1996—the US established new regulations that state that emergency medical research may be conducted without informed consent if all the following conditions have been met: the patient is experiencing a life-threatening condition for which existing treatments are deemed either unsatisfactory or unproven Chapter 3: Global Communicable and Chronic Disease  • The first documented communicable disease occurred in 430 BCE in Greece—Athenian Plague • Ebola Virus—an often fatal disease that spreads quickly between people • Glanders –another fatal disease that spread from animals t
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