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PSYCH 2070 – CHAP 3.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B
Olson James

PSYCH 2070 – CHAP 3  Categorization  process of recognizing and identifying something  Social cognition  study of how info about people is processed and stored Schemas  Mental representations of objects/categories of objects  contain central features of object/category + assumptions about how object/category works  Relational schemas  schemas for specific interpersonal interactions Categorization  Basic func of schema  categorize objects to impose meaning and predictability  When encounter object must categorize before you behave effectively towards it Going Beyond Info Given  Categorize something  assume possess characteristics of schema even if cannot perceive characteristics directly  Going beyond info given  categorization allows us to form impression and make decision Selective Info Processing  Schemas influence how info is processed  schema used to categorize object can influence what is noticed about object  Study: Claudia Cohen  schema activated influence what is noticed and recalled  schemas  influence interpretation of info – unexpected actions arouse curiosity and lead to attempts to understand why object exhibit characteristics Accessibility: What’s On Your Mind?  Schema activated when object’s features match features of schema  Eg. see man behind wheel of truck  truck driver  Accessibility  easiness to which schema comes to awareness   likely to use schemas highly accessible to them  on their mind Priming of Schemas  process which activation of schema increases likelihood that schema will be activated again in near future   schema used recently  more accessible  Study: priming schema of hostile increased use of schema in unrelated task  when you/partner pregnant  seem to notice preg woman, infants everywhere Chronic Accessibility of Schemas  degree which schemas easily activated for an indiv across time/situations  Study: Tory Higgins, Gillian King, Greogory Mavin  student describe 10 traits about themselves and others  same trait then chronically accessible  conclusion: more likely remember actions exhibited own chronically accessible traits Cultural Differences In Accessible Schemas  Cultures differ schemas used most often to categorize self/others  Western  social individuality, freedom, independence  Eastern  socialization harmony, obedience, interdependence  ppl from diff culture perceive same event/person differently  Study: uni stud from aust and HK sort 27 diff social events by similarity  Aust  org by how competitive events were  individualism  HK  org by # of ppl involved  collectivism Stereotypes: Schemas in the Social Domain  Stereotype  set of char that someone associates w/ members of group  cog structure indiv beliefs that members of group share same attributes Going Beyond Info Given  Ingroup  group to which perceiver belongs  uni student your age, gender  Outgroup  group which perceive does not belong  professors, opposite sex  Study: perceivers habitually use perception of ingroups as standards when judging outgroups  judgment more negative  Standards of ingroups generally favourable  Outgroup homogeneity effect  tendency for people to overestimate similarity within groups they do not belong in Selective Info Processing  Stereotypes can change how we interpret ambiguous behaviour  Study: participants rated video of Hannah  given info about positive condition (wealthy area) rated her more positive than in run down area  rated diff based on social stereotypes Automatic vs. Controlled Processes  automatic process  judgment/thought we cannot control over all other mental processes  occurs without intention sometimes beneath awareness  occur at same time as other processes  eg. categorization  do not have to stop and think – involuntary, effortless  controlled process  judgment/thought we command  intentional  require sig cog resources and occurs within awareness  cannot occur if engaged in other processes  controlled thinking to correct errors from automatic processes if we suspect errors Reconstructive Memory  process of trying to rebuild past based on cues and estimates  schemas/goals/expectations that are active while trying to retrieve info and estimate answer can influence outcome  memory isn’t like reading a book, its like writing one from fragmentary notes Autobiographical Memory  stored info about self – goals, personality, past experience and other qualities  study: Michael Ross  autobiographical memory often involved estimating what we were like in past because we cannot retrieve actual info  slippery   involves guesswork which can be influenced by motives and beliefs  study: Anne Wilson, Michael Ross  college students rate themselves on traits now and in past or other way around  rate now more positive than past nd  2 interpretation  estimated past so current self seems more positive  3 interpretation  ratings guided by beliefs about effects of time – improve with time  differences between ratings of current/past do not reflect actual changes  study 2: rate themselves or acquaintance – ratings improved over time for self but not acquaintance  desire to see self positively  human memory provides amazing storage system for recollections of past experience but memory is not infallible  use info recently accessible to us The Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony  human memory fallible especially if eyewitness emotionally fearful/upset  study: people exposed to event  later asked to identify perpetrator often select wrong indiv.  ingroup advantage or outgroup disadvantage  memory of particular racial group better at identifying people from same group  confidence of eyewitness  not strong indicatio
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