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Psychology 2075 Study Guide - Havelock Ellis, Magnus Hirschfeld, Sigmund Freud


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2075
Professor
Corey Isaacs

Page:
of 2
Sexuality in Perspective 9/17/2012 12:34:00 PM
Chapter 1
Science
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
o Founder of psychiatry and psychoanalysis
Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939)
o Believed that women, like men, are sexual creatures
o Believed that sexual deviations from the norm are often
harmless
Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902)
o Coined the concepts of sadism, masochism and pedophilia
o Created the terms heterosexuality and homosexuality
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935)
o Established a marriage counseling service, worked for legal
reforms and gave advice on contraception and sex problems
o Special interest was homosexuality
There has never been a major national survey of the sexual
behaviour of Canadians
The Media
The average Canadian’s views about sexuality are likely to be much
more influenced by the mass media than by scientific findings
Media can have three types of influence:
o Cultivation the notion that people begin to think that what
they see on TV and in other media really represents the
mainstream of what happens in our culture
o Agenda-setting new reporters select what to report, what to
ignore and what to emphasize
o Social learning we may imitate characters on TV, in movies
or in romantic novels without even knowing it
Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality
Humans are unique in the way that cultural learning accumulates
over time
Culture traditional ideas and values transmitted to members of
the group by symbols (languages)
Ethnocentrism tends to influence people’s understanding of
human sexual behaviour
All societies regulate sexual behaviour in some way, though the
exact ways vary greatly
o Incest taboos are nearly universal where sex between blood
relatives is prohibited
Masturbation
Almost all human societies express some disapproval of adult
masturbation, ranging from mild ridicule to severe punishment
Sex with Same-Sex Partners
A wide range of attitudes exist in various cultures
Three general rules apply to same sex sexuality:
o Same sex sexuality is found universally in all societies
o Males are more likely to engage than females
o Same-sex sexual activity is never the predominant form of
sexual behaviour in any society
Standards of Attractiveness
What males and females deem attractive on the opposite sex varies
greatly between societies
A poor complexion is considered unattractive in the majority of
human societies
Ways Humans Are Unique
In virtually all mammals, females don’t engage in sexual behaviour
at all except when they are in “heat”
Human females are capable if engaging in sexual behaviour during
any phase on their hormonal cycle
There is little in human sexuality that is completely unique to
humans