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Final Exam: Unit 7-12

7 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2134A/B
Marc Joanisse

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FINAL EXAM KEY POINTS UNIT 7 y We use words whose meanings can changeanticipate grammatical conventions before knowing for sure which ones are actually being used y Interpreting a sentenceestablishing who is doing what to whom y thisthat referred to as pointing wordsused to direct attention to somewherehighlights an important aspect of language many words in language refer to things y Using words more useful than pointing y ASL equivalent to using pronouns like pointinggives advantage over spoken language can physically represent who is being referred to y True for every language that uses both types of pronouns o Pronouns cannot refer to just anyone already mentionedonly refers to who did the doing indicates an action was selforiented o Nonreflexive pronouns himher can refer to anythingare otheroriented y Linguists who believe in universal properties of language think they must reflect universalinnate knowledge about languagemakes every language have something equivalent to something in every other language o Believe this is explained in terms of children having innate knowledge that reflexive pronouns himself do something different than nonreflexive pronouns him do o Believe children have innate knowledge of what each type of pronoun does y Errors in both types of pronouns seen up until 10 years oldget pretty good at them between 46 years old o Learn reflexive pronouns before nonreflexive y For every rule there is an exception y If a pronouns is already used to describe an object a new pronoun should not refer to the same thing reflexive vs nonreflexive y The idea that every question contains a gap helps explain how we interpret pronouns in questions y We find where the gap goes by finding the positions in the sentence where something is missing then we can figure out where role the thing that should be in the gap would have then we retrieve from our memory the information about who fulfilled that role y The fact that relative clausesquestions starting with whowhatwhich are very similar explains why whowhich can start both questionsrelative clauses y We dont wait to find where the gap is to answer questionswe assign s role to the noun of the sentence as soon as we have one to assigny Implausible words take longer to read y In languages where the verb comes at the end of the sentence JapaneseTurkish identity of roles is only revealed after all participants in sentence have been encountered y Where gaps cancannot appear depends on the language y Childrens syntax develops slowly1 word phase around 115 yearswords are usually nounsholophrases single words that stand for multiword utterances often indicate desire emotion naming y 2 word phase seen around 2 yearsproduce telegraphic speech produce short groups of wordsleave out unimportant grammatical markersgrouping of words is still grammatical mommy gimme sock y Use mean length utterance MLU to assess syntactic developmentaverage number of morphemes in childs sentencesrapid MLU increase between 154 yeards y Develop active pushing sentence types earlier than passives pushedseen younger than 4 years y Easier for children to understand subject relatives SR than object relatives OR y Interrogatives marked in 2 wayso Prosodically via rising intonation questions o Syntacticallyby changing word orderadding a wh word y Stages of learning wh words rising intonation alone omitting auxiliary verb auxiliary verb in wrong place correct placement y Sentence processing lexical access parsing semantics pragmatics
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