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Research Methods TB Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2800E
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
ResearchMethodsChapter1PsychologyandSciencePsychologyisaScienceitisvitalforpsychologiststobeabletounderstandandevaluateresearchevidenceThemaingoalofscienceisdevelopingatheorytoexplainfactsandlawsAnothergoalisthedescriptionanddiscoverofregularitiesTwomethodstolearnaboutbehaviourwaysofknowingoEmpiricalbasedonevidenceincludeintuitionandscienceoNonempiricalincludeauthorityandlogicNonempiricalMethodsAuthoritybasedonsomeoneelsesknowledgeWemaybelievesomethingbecausesomeonerespectedtoldusitstrueExbelievingObamaisborninHawaiibecauseyourfaithinthecredibilityofthegovernmentnewsmediaandbooksactedasauthoritiesandtoldyousoMajorlimitationsasawayofknowingauthoritiesareoftenwrongLogicbasedondeductiveandinductivereasoningCrucialindrawingconclusionsabouttheworldLimitationscantellyouthatastatementisfalsebecauseitdrawsanimproperconclusionastatementcouldbelogicallyvalidbutstillnotbetruebcuzitassumessomethingtobethecasethatisnotLogiccantprovethingsandcantsubstituteforempiricalevidenceEmpiricalMethodsIntuitionspontaneousperceptionorjudgmentnotbasedonreasonedmentalstepsAwayofknowingbasedonspontaneousinstinctiveprocessesDistrustingpeoplebecausetheyaretoosincereorsizinguppeopleiscalledwomensintuitionExallthefactorsthatwesomehowtakeintoaccountbeforecrossingtheroadisintuitionCommonSensetypeofintuitionpracticalintelligencesharedbyalargegroupofpeopleemphasizestheagreementofapersonsjudgmentwiththesharedattitudesexperiencesofalargergroupofpeopleTwolimitationso1standardsofcommonsensedifferfromtimetotimeandfromplacetoplaceaccordingtoattitudesandexperiencesofthatcultureo2theonlycriterionitrecognizesforjudgingthetruthofabelieforpracticeiswhetheritworksExoldguytellscollegegraduatethattheoldwaysworkwellenoughsothepracticeismaintainedandthetheorybehinditisconsideredtrueNotestingisdoneforwhyFollowingapracticebecauseitworksdoesntpredictwhenitwillornotworkexoldchildrearingCannotpredictnewknowledgeCommonsensechangeswithtimeandcircumstancescientificresultsareoftencounterintuitivemeaningsomethingthatgoesagainstcommonsenseoftencalledfruitfulExinanemergencyyouwouldthinkthemorebystandersthemorelikelythepersonwouldbehelpedbutthisiscounterintuitiveScientistscommonsensetendtodifferthanotherpeoplebecauseoftheirbackgroundsScienceawayofobtainingknowledgebymeansofobjectiveobservationsScientificmethodsimplifieddefiningtheproblemformingahypothesiscollectingdatadrawingconclusionsandcommunicatingthefindingsWhydowetalkaboutthenatureofscienceTherearescientificmethodSnotmethodhardtogoaboutthescienceofpsychandsomestudentsfeeltheyhavebecomeamateurpsychologistsbywatchingbehaviourhardtothinkofitasasciencebecauseofexperiencesCharacteristicsofScienceEmpiricalnotallempiricalwaysofknowingarescientifichenceintuitionObjectivescienceisawayofobtainingknowledgebasedonobjectiveobservationsobjectivebeingthatanyonewithnormalperceptionatthesameplaceandtimewouldhavethesameobservationOtherscientistsusethesespecifiedprocedureswiththesameconditiontotestthefindingsagainotheexperimentersreportbecausetheobjectofscientificdiscussionSelfCorrectingscienceischaracterizedbyawillingnesstoletnewevidencecorrectpreviousbeliefscommitmenttochangebasedonempiricalevidenceProgressivemovesforwardtowardthetruthnewinformationbeingaddedTentativehavereasonableconfidenceofcomingclosertothetruthParsimoniousweshouldusethesimplestpossiblyexplanationforaphenomenonOccamsrazorConcernedwithaTheoryscienceaskswhythingshappenTechnologyisoftenaheadofscienceAuthorityhadareducedroleinscienceinchallengingsciencethereismorelookintoanolderscientistsviewthananewscientistbutthisisminimalsinceiftheevidencechecksoutageandexperiencedontmatterWorkingAssumptionsofScienceRealismthephilosophythatobjectsperceivedhaveanexistenceoutsidethemindthenotionthatobjectsofscientificstudyintheworldexistapartfromtheirbeingperceivedbyusoExaratdoesntstopbeingreinforcedifthescientistfallsasleepoSomeareconcernedwithhowwereallyknowthenatureoftheworldoScientistsbelievetheworldisrealbutavoidcommonsenserealismthatthingsarejustthewaytheyseemRationalityaviewthatreasoningisthebasisforsolvingproblemsusinglogicalthinkingRegularityassumesthattheworldfollowsthesamelawsatalltimesandplacesabeliefthatphenomenaexistinrecurringpatternsthatconformwithuniversallawsimportantbcuzwecansaythatsciencelawsarethesamealwaysnothingabouthumanbehaviourfallsoutsidethelawsofnatureDiscoverabilitythebeliefitispossibletolearnsolutionstoquestionsposedbelievewecandiscoverhowtheworldworksonourownwithouthigherbeingorpowersmotivateslongworkCausalityoDeterminismisabeliefthatalleventsarecausedoScientistsseekcausesforbehaviourwithoutnecessarilymakingtheassumptiontheywillcompletelylearnthecausesofbehaviourorthattheideaoffreewillisanillusionoAllrelationshipsbweventsarenotofacauseandeffectnatureToestablishthistemporalndprecedencemustoccuronethingjustbeforetheother2isCovariationofcauseandeffectiewhenthecauseisintroducedtheeffectoccursProbabilisticCovariationstatisticalassociationofacausewithaneffectmayoccurExsmokingleadstolungcancerEliminationofalternativeexplanationsisthelastcriteriaTheseassumptionsaremadetodoscienceTheGoalsofSciencetwomaingoalsdiscoveringregularitiesanddevelopingtheoriesDiscoveringRegularitiesConsideredinthreewaysdescriptionofbehaviourdiscoveringlawfulrelationsamongaspectsofbehaviourandthesearchforcausesDescriptionmustdefineeventsandentitiessuchasstimuliandresponsescognitionsandbeliefsorneurosesandpsychosesneedacleardescriptionofwhatisbeingstudiedbeforeyoucanaskwhyexdescribeasociopathbeforefindingoutwhatcausesthemtobeoneoDemonstratestherelationshipbetweenpsychologyandbiologicalsciences
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