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Psychology 3130_MidtermNotes.docx

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Psychology 3130A/B
John Paul Minda

Psychology 3130Midterm 1 NotesSimilarity1What are the main reasons to study similaritySimilarity underlies many important cognitive constructsSimilarity is domain generalSimilarity can be a diagnostic tool problem solving analytical Similarity allows us to create perceptual reality with conceptual space ability to determine peoples thoughts memory or conceptual structure by measuring similarity space2What are the functions of similarityOrganization technique categorizationMaking predictions for when you dont have specific knowledge about certain properties of an objectMemory retrieval with similar cuesProblem solvingif novel problem is similar to previously solved problems apply solution to old problem to the novel problem3How do experts solve problems via similaritySimilarity reveals expertiseExperts can interpret similarities in problems that are superficially dissimilar experts may change number character or stretch or shrink dimensions when using the geometric model of similarity to solve problemsthey are also less likely to judge similarity based on shared superficial features4City block vs Euclidean metricsCity block space when you perceive each dimension as a separate entity Eg FISHTail shape colour each feature separatelyLonger than EuclideanEuclidean space compare the items as a whole Direct line the shortest space between two objects is a straight line Measurable Eg Shades of colours Children use Euclidean5What is the central assumption of the MDS geometric approach to similarityThe geometric model assumes that you have calculated dissimilarityPsychological space is analogous to physical space I think this is the central oneDimension values rank similarity between entities 6What are three additional assumptions of standard geometric models of similarity that are often violated Please give an example of one of these violationsMinimality A thing must be closer to itself than to any other object This is violated by letter comparisons C is perceived to be more similar to O than W is to itselfinterletter confusion Measured by time taken to identify W takes longer it has more featuresSymmetry Comparison order matters therefore it violates the idea of psychological space being analogous with physical space More important concepts have more psychological gravity and serve as anchor pointsTriangle Inequality lines on the triangle dont equal each other because a straight lineconnecting two points is the shortest path between the points 7How does the contrast model determine the similarity between two itemsSimilarity is a result of feature matching Expressed as a linear combination of the common and distinctive features
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