Psych 3227 – Class Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 3224A/B
Jennifer Hoo Shooley

Psych 3227Class NotesLecture 1 The cortex shows columnar organization In different areas certain layers can be thicker or thinner There are six layers at the top of the brain that do the processing Along the surface of the brain there are columns where different typs of information is processed One way to divide up the cortex into different areascyroarchitectonic typing oDivided by how thick or thin that part along the cortical surface is Layers are composed of stellate and pyramidal cells Brain vs MindAristotle and Descartes and dualismMind and brain separate but interacting Rene Descartes oProposed site of interaction between mind and bodyPineal bodyCortex was not seen as functioning neural tissue but as elaborate covering for pineal body DarwinCommon descent of brain Speciesstructures evolve through gradual change over time Brain and its products also subject to evolution Mindcollective functions of the brain Franz Josef GallLocalization of function 1Brain produces behavior oSpecific parts of the brain produce specific behaviors reportedly he was annoyed by students with good memories who achieved excellent marks but did not have an equivalent ability for original thinkingHe remembered that students with best memories had protruding eyeballsHe proposed they would have a well developed memory area of cortex behind the eyeballsStudied phrenology oRelation of skulls surface features to persons characteristic Studied many animals and murderersBut outer skull does not mirror inner skull much less surface features of skullLocalization and lateralization of languagePaul Broca and the language area specifically on the left side Hypothesized he would find this based on previous work Brocas aphasiaWernickes aphasiaDogmaBrain researches and others assumed that the left hemisphere was highly evolved whereas the right relatively retarded being not only mute worddeaf and unable to write nor read nor making skilled movements and lacking generally in higher cognitive function Splitbrain patientsSurgery to prevent spreading of epileptic seizures from one hemi to the otherBogen and Vogel cut corpus callosum and smaller commissuresSperry studied these patients Although mute the right hemisphere can oComprehend words spoken aloud read printed words point to corresponding objects or pictures in an array match presented objects or pictures correctly from spoken to printed words and vice versa Dogma that language is restricted to the left hemi was very strong though Distributed systemsCurrent trendbehaviors cognitions and perceptions are encodedprocessed in many areas of the brain over distributed systems John Hughlings Jackson oQuestion is not where a given attribute is localized but what special contribution each part of cortex makes to a particular attribute Binding problem2
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