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Western University
Psychology 1000

Language 1/10/2012 10:40:00 AM What are the properties of a language? How does syntax provide meaning to language? Is language learned? January 10, 12 Basic Properties Semanticity Meaningful Generativity Ability to use finite number of words and rules to produce infinite number of sentences Displacement Convey information about other times and places Organization Language is structured Sentence- The strangers left. Phrase- The strangers Word- The, strangers Morpheme- strange, er, s meaningful units, gives meaning to the word  Start with root word (strange)  Add er- turns adjective into noun  Prefixes/suffixes  Good, unabridged dictionary 250000 to 300000 words  Student vocab: 150000 Phoneme- streynj, er, z  Basic units: English45, Hawaiian13 - most anything in English can be said with a vocabulary of 850 words - telephone conversations: 96% of “talk” made up of 737 words - correlation word frequency and word length= -0.75 (the longer a word is the less likely you are to use it) Syntax - Arranging the elements in a “meaningful” way Proper structure importance of grammar Phonological Ambiguity Confusion of sounds (knock knock jokes) Lexical Ambiguity Confusion or double meaning of words “I work as a baker because I knead the dough” Syntactic Ambiguity confusion in structure “I saw a man eating shark at at the aquarium”, Semantic Meaning (call me a cab, okay you’re a cab) Kids progress from phonological and lexical to syntactic and semantic Noam Chomsky: Transformational Grammar Surface Structure (sequence of words) vs. deep structure (actual meaning) - rules transform your deep structure into a surface structure (idea may be interpreted differently) “Flying planes can be dangerous” (surface) Deep 1: Planes are dangerous Deep 2: Piloting a plane is dangerous Language learning o Result of imitation and reinforcement? Not really o Yes, child does learn that “dog” applies in English o But the trick is creativity Also: - Mistakes in grammar not corrected (facts are) st - So, what happens? From the 1 moments of life, infants vocalize (cry, coo, babble) - True even for deaf infants, babbling has no conventional meaning, but takes on a social quality in hearing infants - Rules of interaction - By 2 months, infants show Phoneme discrimination - Sensitivity to foreign contrasts drops as infant approaches 12 months. Suggests… - Infants are hard wired for language acquisition, prepared for any language Jan 12, 12 How do infants acquire language? What is thought? What shortcuts do people use when problem solving? “Motherese” high pitch, slow rate, exaggerated tone Adults shift “automatically” infants prefer this type of speech to normal adult speech learning about pausing, pitch characteristics, etc. The one word speaker - 5 to 8 months of age, respond to parents’ words - talking begins 10-20 months - early vocabulary simple - e.g. Nouns (mama, duck), interactions (hi, peekaboo), adjectives (hot, big) - #1 word is No - likely to contain objects that infant can manipulate (ball more likely than ceiling) Note: difficult to tell what kids mean when they use single words tend to undergeneralize The two word speaker - telegraphic speech (things will be communicated but they are short and to the point) - starts around 2 years old - vocabulary= several hundred word - speech shows proper organization - “throw ball” not “ball throw” - by 2 and a half years child moves beyond 2 words, and sentences become more complex - start searching for rules of generalization - the 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in tense (e.g. “runned” not “ran” “eated” not “ate”) - child now overgeneralizes rules - formal schooling takes over Nature vs. Nurture - So far, it seems as if the brain is “hard wired” for language - Will language develop on its own? A. Wild children No - consider Amala (found at 1.5 years) and Kamala (found at 8 years) - living with wolf pack who adopted them - wolfish in their appearance and behaviour - shunned other children but followed dogs and cats B. Isolated children Maybe - Isabelle (6 year old)Yes, learned linguistic abilities - Genie (14 year old) No C. No modelsMaybe - e.g. Deaf kids with hearing parents who do not sign - kids develop own signs with rudimentary syntax D. Other animals No - basics only - no real syntax - no propositional thought - seems unlikely given data on wild & isolated children Critical Period - Even with “innate” abilities, experience may be critical at a particular developmental phase - E.g. White crowned sparrow - Must be exposed to adult song 7th to 60 thday of life - Human language? - 3 months- early teens Thought & Language what is a thought? directed thinking Thought and language are closely related Inner speech Thought best described in abstract, logical terms Concepts & Propositions Conceptcategories Collected of related elements - Proposition a statement about concepts may be true or false E.G. cities are larger than towns Note: concepts and propositions imply much more than the words we use to express them Organization of thought Hierarchical structure (building blocks) Goal-directed Schema-driven (way of getting things done) The way we structure “thinking” into schema-driven hierarchies is learned by experience with a particular problem Consider average chess players vs. grand masters  have difference schematic organization But schemas can lead us in the wrong direction… We might ignore important information Heuristics  Kahnesman and Tversky… Consider George Representativeness (assumptions) Insensitivity to sample size availability Framing effects Problem Solving Correct solutions to “insight” problems involve 1. Selective encoding 2. Selective combination 3. Selective comparison Intelligence 1/10/2012 10:40:00 AM January 17, 12 How do we solve problems? What is intelligence? How do you measure intelligence? What is “intelligence”? - a host of abilities (memory, creativity, etc…) - what a test measures - but tests can be misleading - several studies indicate that unschooled people in remote villages cannot solve syllogisms (logical puzzles) - suggests that preliterate people do not (or can not) use logical analysis Scribner (1977) - All Kpelle men are rice farmers, Mr. Smith is not a rice farmer. Is he a Kpelle man? - Ecological approach Psychometric Approach o Galton 1869relatives of intelligent people, genetics o Starts research program to identify those with low ability o Measures simple motor and sensory abilities o Believes that intelligence was unitary (mental quickness) o Develops Correlation Coefficient o Results disappointing o Binetrequest from French government (public school mandatory) o Belief that intelligence was “a collection of higher order abilities” no correlation o Ability results from learning o Sharp contrast to Galton o Binet & Simon develop test in early 1900’s tapping a number of abilities (memory, math, etc…) o correlate scores with teacher ratings- criterion validity 1905-1908 o tests revised and concept of mental age introduced o standardize test o get age norms (mean performance) o assign new test score to mental age group according to norms o so, if child performs at level of average 5 year old… MA=5 o concept of I.Q. not due to Binet, rather… o Terman (& Stern)- Adapts Binet scale for use in the USA while at Standford o Stanford-Binet widely used o Ex. 2-2 ½ must insert geometric shaped blocks into appropriate holes, 6 must define words such as envelope o I.Q.= MA/CA * 100 o E.g. if a child is 10 yrs old but scores at the level of average 12 yr. old- 12/10 * 100 = 120 o Note: Stanford-Binet designed for children… not appropriate for adults o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale o WAIS- IV, also: WISC-IV o WAIS-IV has 10 subscales with both verbal and performance measures o Subtest: - Verbal information - Typical question: What is the capital of France? - Performance, picture arrangement - Typical question: arrange pictures into linear sequence order o Idea of assigning an IQ score based on mental age breaks down with adults o Use deviation IQ (z-score) Concerns: Reliability- consistency of measurement Test-Retest R=.80 to .95 for Stanford Binet and WAIS-IV Validity - does test measure what it is supposed to do? - R with achievement - Range: .3 to .7 Bias - is the test “culture fair” or do the answers require specific knowledge available only to certain (sub) cultures? - More than “academic” questionstreaming Dove (1968) “Chitterling test” January 24, 2012 Non-Verbal Behaviour What are the major nonverbal channels? Are emotions universal? Is eye contact aversive? What is Intelligence? Intelligence is Unitary Galton Spearman - better statistics (factor analysis) - looks for patterns of correlations “g” - 4 different tests predicts a strong positive correlation after doing the tests Intelligence is Multiplex Binet Thurston - “better” statistics - independent primary mental abilities - no “g” factor - the tests do not all have to be related - may be some stuff that does not add up to 1 - 7 Primary mental abilities How many primary abilities are there? Depends on number of tests and number of factors extracted Thurstone7 Guliford120 Other multiple models CattelFluid vs. Crstallizaed (raw mental ability vs. stuff you learn over your lifetime) GardnerMultiple intelligences Sternberd Triarchic Theory Nonverbal Behaviour Telling lies Finding a date Nonverbal Channels Paralanguage: non-content aspects of speech o tone of voice o speed o amplitude o rise time/fall time o hesitations and pauses Facial Expressions o typically emotions o may reflect other cognitive states e.g. comprehension o most commonly identify: anger, fear, disgust, surprise, happiness, sadness Body Movement/Position o Kinesics: Movement, posture, etc. o Gestures: Hand signals o Ekman & Friesen (1969) o Emblems: Meaningful substitutes o Illustrators: Accompany speech, accent, etc. o Regulators: maintain or change speakers Eye Contact o looking directly into another’s eyes o typical conversation: 60%-70% gazing, 30% mutual eye contact, about 1-3 second o more than 7 seconds… stare Interpersonal Distance o use of physical space o personal space o Interaction zones: Intimate 0.5, personal 1.25, social 3.5, public 7.5 (speaking) o The more you like someone the closer you interact with them o People in different countries have different interaction distances (Scotland is the most, Greece is the least, Mediterranean/Arabic cultures prefer closer interactions) Deception - an act intended to foster a false belief in another - intentional - maintain a farther interaction distance - Ekman & Friesen (1974) - Notion of leakage nonverbal cues that “escape” attempts to conceal - Face: looking at individual and all you can see is the face, body: neck down, sample/no sample - Which is the most revealing of deceptive cues? Body - Accurate? Average close to 55% - Some people better? Kraut & Poe (1980)… customs officials - Leach et al. (2009) police & customs officers with children - Overall no one is better than others - So how is this all related to emotion? Motivation 1/10/2012 10:40:00 AM Thursday January 26, 2012 How do we self-regulate? Is arousal related to emotion? Does arousal produce pleasure? - What it is that makes organisms do what they do - Control mechanismspositive or negative feedback Basic biological control 1. Orienting responses or taxes - overall musculature response toward (positive) or away from (negative) a stimulus - positive photo-taxis in moth (detects light, flies towards it, flies faster towards it) - negative photo-taxis in cockroach (detects light, go away from light) - slugs have a geotaxissense gravity, negative, move away from the pull) 2. Homeostatic mechanisms - maintaining a constant state - ex. Like a furnace thermometer - importance of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Divisions of the nervous system Brain Peripheral NS or Central NS Peripheral NS (motor)Autonomic or Skeletal AutonomicSympathetic or Parasympathetic (Antagonistic, work against each other, when one is activated the other is suppressed) Sympathetic - “gears” up for action e.g. activation accelerated heart rate, inhibition of peristalsis (contractions in intestinal muscles), vasoconstriction Parasympathetic - conserves e.g. activationdecelerated heart rate, stimulation or peristalsis, vasodilatation Arousal Cannon (1945) - vegetative and activating functions - emergency reaction Activation of SNSStimulation of adrenal medulla (endocrine)adrenaline (epinephrine)heart rate and breathing increase break down of glucose, NE DA Result heightened state of arousal detect with polygraph species specific behaviour related to emotion - Making eyes - Pupil Dilation - Hess & Polt (1960 - Interesting slides - Which one do you like the best? Larger pupils - We look at it as a sign that they like us - In general, Hess suggestspupil dilation for positive constriction for negative - Support uneven, but…we do find dilated pupils attractive Emergency situation elicits fear Importance of: 1. Stimulus intensity- avoid intense 2. Stimulus novelty- prefer the familiar Berlyne’s Set point theory - relation between pleasure and arousal - Measure pleasure and arousal everyone has a baseline level of arousal, if you look at moderate increases or decreases pleasure increases - If arousal levels become very extreme pleasure decreases Note: antagonistic nature of SNS and PSNS - rebound effect when arousal stops the inhibition comes up and the parasympathetic returns to above normal, triggers parasympathetic arousalaffects immune system - act against each other - Reticular Activating SystemRAS”activates” cortex - Extends from bottom of brain stem up to the thalamus Triggering the RAS 1. Collateral sensory informationnon specificinput goes through to the primary sensory cortexalso a path that goes down to the reticular system, non specific sensory feedback 2. Cortical feedback once you start arousing the cortex it keeps going Note: RAS vs SNS - diffuse activation system - adrenergic (NE): primary neurotransmitter is norepenephrine - antagonists: when one is activated the other is inhibited RAS: body SNS: cortex Emotion 1/10/2012 10:40:00 AM January 31, 2012 How do we experience emotion? Is arousal necessary? What is the role of brain structures? Are there any hemispheric differences? Darwin: expression intensifies experience Freud: expression reduces experience, catharsis Support? - highly aroused subjects show little expressiveness - supports Freud - most support is for Darwin facial feedback hypothesis (Izard) Common Sense Theory  emotion provoking eventsperception (danger)Perception of emotion (fear)Bodily arousal  “updated” James-Lange Theory  emotion provoking eventsperception (danger)bodily arousalperception of emotion (fear)  fear happens after arousal  arousal has a very important role to play in the perception of emotion Izard: Facial feedback  changes in facial expression responsible for distinct emotion  number of studies indicate that adopting appropriate expression yields emotion Laird  subjects asked to tense and relax muscles  smile or frown  self-reported happiness is higher in smile group  self-reported anger higher in frown group  stimuli seen as funnier for smile group etc… Strack et al.  holding pencil in teeth or lips Eckman, Levenson and Friesen  explicit instructions following Eckman’s coding system  measure ANS activity - Heart rate is low when people are happy, disgusted or surprised - Heart rate is high- and skin temperature is high you are displaying anger, if skin temperature is low you are displaying fear or sadness Is movement of facial muscles really necessary? Note: Ideal test  Evaluate patient with bilateral facial paralysis  Patient (F.P) could not display emotions, but did report feeling emotional  Inject Botox… fMRI scans before and after while displaying anger  Lower activity level in amygdala and brainstem after Cognitive-Affective Theories  Relationship between cognition and emotion reaction Lazarus’s Theory  emotion provoking eventsAppraisalBodily arousalAppraisal (figuring everything out)emotion  loops back and forth between arousal and appraisal  knowing if you will feel afraid because you can appraise it Schachter’s Theory  emotion provoking eventsperception (appraisal)bodily arousalint
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