Psychology Chapter 10 Full Review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
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Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Psychology Chapter 10 Study Questions 1) Define: Intelligence: Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. Intelligence Tests: These are tests that are administered that calculate a persons overall intelligence and compares it to the rest of a population in order to determine the level of intellect that that person possesses. Some examples of intelligence tests are: Stanford-Binet, Army Alpha, WAIS, WISC, WAIS-III, WISC-IV. Standardization: This intelligence test measurement requirement has two meanings: 1) the development of norms; 2) rigorously controlled testing procedures. The first meaning of standardization is especially important in providing a meaningful IQ score. Test Norms: Test norms are a collection of test scores, derived from a large sample that represents particular age segments of the population. Reliability: This refers to consistency of measurement. Reliability can take several forms when applied to psychological tests. It can refer to consistency of measurement over time, consistency of measurement by the items within the test itself, or consistency in scores assigned by different examiners. Validity: This refers to how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure. Flynn Effect: Much of the world’s population is scoring progressively higher on intelligence tests. Over time the average score on intelligence tests has continually risen and continues to. Psychometrics: Statistical study of psychological tests. Theories of Intelligence 1) Sir Francis Galton theorized that intelligence seemed to occur within families. He was convinced that people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking than others. He measured reaction time, hand strength and the size of people’s skulls, thinking that these were indicators of intelligence. 2) Through Galton’s abundance of studies and work, Alfred Binet, the creator of the first intelligence test, was able to develop tests that assessed the mental skills of French school children In making his intelligence tests, Binet made two assumptions about intelligence: 1) mental abilities develop with age; 2) the rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time. 3) Spearman concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a g- factor, or general intelligence factor, and partly by whatever special abilities might be required to perform that particular task. He stated that because the general intelligence factor cuts across all tasks, it constitutes the core of intelligence. In the modern day, many theorists continue to believe that the g-factor is the core of intelligence as it has shown, through studies, that a general intelligence or general ability is significantly related to success in life. 4) Thurstone disagreed with Spearman, viewing intelligence as a set of specific abilities. Thurstone concluded that human mental performance depends not on a general factor but rather on seven distinct abilities, which he called primary mental abilities. Space about visual scenes. Verbal Understanding Comprehension verbal statements. Producing Word Fluency verbal statements. Dealingwith Number Facility numbers. Perpetual Speed Recognizing visual patterns. Rote Memory Memorizing. Dealingwith Reasoning novel problems. 5) Guilford conceptualized that there are more than 100 distinct mental abilities that are measureable. Crystallized Intelligence The ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems. Vocabulary and information tests are good measures of crystalized intelligence. Long-term memory. Fluid Intelligence Fluid Intelligence is defined as the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience DOES NOT provide a solution. Fluid intelligence requires abilities to reason abstractly, think logically, and manage information in short-term (working) memory. General Intelligence Crystallized Fluid Intelligence - Intelligence - use of solving new existing knowledge. problems. Most language functions. Application of culturallyacquired problem-solving methods. Long-term memory contributes to crystallized intelligence and short-term memory contributes to fluid intelligence. As we get older, we progress from using fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence remains strong throughout adulthood into late adulthood, whereas fluid intelligence begins to decline as people enter late adulthood. 7) Carroll used a factor analysis to reanalyze more than 460 different sets of data. He synthesized this information into an integrative model of intelligence that contains elements of Spearman’s, Thurstone’s, and Cattel-Horn’s. His Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities: establishes three levels of mental skills – general, broad and narrow – arranged in a hierarchical model. General Intelligence Fluid CrystallizedMemoryl Broad Broad Broad Broad Processing IntelligencIntelligence and PerceptionPerception Abilityal Speediness Speed Learning Specific cognitive, perceptual, and speed tasks used in studies of cognitive abilities. - At the top, or third stratum, is a g factor that is thought to underlie most mental activity. - Below g, at the second stratum are eight broad intellectual factors arranged from left to right in terms of the extent to which they are influenced by g. - Finally, at the first level of the stratum, there are nearly 70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into the broader second spectrum. Cognitive Process Theories explore the specific information-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability. 8) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behavior and the diverse forms intelligence can take. This theory divides the cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behavior into three components. Performance Knowledge-Acquisition Metacomponents Components Components Higher order processes. Actual mental processes Learn from our Used to regulate task used to perform the task. experiences. performance. Fundamental sources of Perpetual processing . Store informatio in individual differences in memory. fluid intelligence. Retrieving memories . Smarter people spend Long-term memory . Combine new insights time developing a plan. with previously stored memories. Less intelligent people Generating responses . plunge right in. Underlie individual differences in crystallized Include problem solving intelligence. skill. Sternberg believes that there is more than one kind of intelligence: Analytical Intelligence This kind of intelligence involves the kinds of academically oriented problem- solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests. Practical Intelligence This kind of intelligence refers to the skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively. Creative Intelligence This comprises the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems. Gardner also believes that there is more than one kind of intelligence. He outlined nine different types of intelligence. Linguistic Intelligence The ability to use language well, as writers do. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence The ability to reason mathematically and logically Visuospatial Intelligence The ability to solve spatial problems or to succeed in a field such as architecture. Musical Intelligence The ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and produce music. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence The ability to control body movements and skillfully manipulate objects, as demonstrated by a highly skilled dancer, athlete or surgeon. Interpersonal Intelligence The ability to understand and relate well to others. Intrapersonal Intelligence The ability to understand oneself. Naturalistic Intelligence The ability to detect and understand phenomena in the natural world. The first three types of intelligences that Gardner proposed are measured by intelligence tests, but the othe
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