Intelligence: Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason
effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment.
Intelligence Tests: These are tests that are administered that calculate a persons
overall intelligence and compares it to the rest of a population in order to determine
the level of intellect that that person possesses. Some examples of intelligence tests
are: Stanford-Binet, Army Alpha, WAIS, WISC, WAIS-III, WISC-IV.
Standardization: This intelligence test measurement requirement has two
meanings: 1) the development of norms; 2) rigorously controlled testing
procedures. The first meaning of standardization is especially important in
providing a meaningful IQ score.
Test Norms: Test norms are a collection of test scores, derived from a large sample
that represents particular age segments of the population.
Reliability: This refers to consistency of measurement. Reliability can take several
forms when applied to psychological tests. It can refer to consistency of
measurement over time, consistency of measurement by the items within the test
itself, or consistency in scores assigned by different examiners.
Validity: This refers to how well a test actually measures what it is designed to
Flynn Effect: Much of the world’s population is scoring progressively higher on
intelligence tests. Over time the average score on intelligence tests has continually
risen and continues to.
Psychometrics: Statistical study of psychological tests.
Theories of Intelligence
1) Sir Francis Galton theorized that intelligence seemed to occur within families. He
was convinced that people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more
fit for thinking than others. He measured reaction time, hand strength and the size
of people’s skulls, thinking that these were indicators of intelligence.
2) Through Galton’s abundance of studies and work, Alfred Binet, the creator of the
first intelligence test, was able to develop tests that assessed the mental skills of
French school children In making his intelligence tests, Binet made two assumptions about intelligence: 1)
mental abilities develop with age; 2) the rate at which people gain mental
competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time.
3) Spearman concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a g-
factor, or general intelligence factor, and partly by whatever special abilities might
be required to perform that particular task. He stated that because the general
intelligence factor cuts across all tasks, it constitutes the core of intelligence. In the
modern day, many theorists continue to believe that the g-factor is the core of
intelligence as it has shown, through studies, that a general intelligence or general
ability is significantly related to success in life.
4) Thurstone disagreed with Spearman, viewing intelligence as a set of specific
abilities. Thurstone concluded that human mental performance depends not on a
general factor but rather on seven distinct abilities, which he called primary mental
Space about visual
Word Fluency verbal
Number Facility numbers.
Perpetual Speed Recognizing
Rote Memory Memorizing.
problems. 5) Guilford conceptualized that there are more than 100 distinct mental abilities
that are measureable.
Crystallized Intelligence The ability to apply previously acquired
knowledge to current problems.
Vocabulary and information tests are
good measures of crystalized
intelligence. Long-term memory.
Fluid Intelligence Fluid Intelligence is defined as the ability
to deal with novel problem-solving
situations for which personal experience
DOES NOT provide a solution. Fluid
intelligence requires abilities to reason
abstractly, think logically, and manage
information in short-term (working)
Crystallized Fluid Intelligence -
Intelligence - use of solving new
existing knowledge. problems.
methods. Long-term memory contributes to crystallized intelligence and short-term memory
contributes to fluid intelligence.
As we get older, we progress from using fluid intelligence to depending more on
crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence remains strong throughout
adulthood into late adulthood, whereas fluid intelligence begins to decline as people
enter late adulthood.
7) Carroll used a factor analysis to reanalyze more than 460 different sets of data.
He synthesized this information into an integrative model of intelligence that
contains elements of Spearman’s, Thurstone’s, and Cattel-Horn’s.
His Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities: establishes three levels of mental
skills – general, broad and narrow – arranged in a hierarchical model.
Fluid CrystallizedMemoryl Broad Broad Broad Broad Processing
IntelligencIntelligence and PerceptionPerception Abilityal Speediness Speed
Specific cognitive, perceptual, and speed tasks used in studies of cognitive abilities.
- At the top, or third stratum, is a g factor that is thought to underlie most mental
activity. - Below g, at the second stratum are eight broad intellectual factors arranged from
left to right in terms of the extent to which they are influenced by g.
- Finally, at the first level of the stratum, there are nearly 70 highly specific cognitive
abilities that feed into the broader second spectrum.
Cognitive Process Theories explore the specific information-processing and
cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability.
8) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory addresses both the psychological processes
involved in intelligent behavior and the diverse forms intelligence can take.
This theory divides the cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behavior into
Metacomponents Components Components
Higher order processes. Actual mental processes Learn from our
Used to regulate task used to perform the task. experiences.
Fundamental sources of Perpetual processing . Store informatio in
individual differences in memory.
fluid intelligence. Retrieving memories .
Smarter people spend Long-term memory . Combine new insights
time developing a plan. with previously stored
Less intelligent people Generating responses .
plunge right in.
differences in crystallized
Include problem solving intelligence.
Sternberg believes that there is more than one kind of intelligence:
Analytical Intelligence This kind of intelligence involves the
kinds of academically oriented problem-
solving skills measured by traditional
Practical Intelligence This kind of intelligence refers to the
skills needed to cope with everyday
demands and to manage oneself and
other people effectively.
Creative Intelligence This comprises the mental skills needed
to deal adaptively with novel problems. Gardner also believes that there is more than one kind of intelligence. He outlined
nine different types of intelligence.
Linguistic Intelligence The ability to use language well, as
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence The ability to reason mathematically and
Visuospatial Intelligence The ability to solve spatial problems or
to succeed in a field such as architecture.
Musical Intelligence The ability to perceive pitch and rhythm
and to understand and produce music.
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence The ability to control body movements
and skillfully manipulate objects, as
demonstrated by a highly skilled dancer,
athlete or surgeon.
Interpersonal Intelligence The ability to understand and relate well
Intrapersonal Intelligence The ability to understand oneself.
Naturalistic Intelligence The ability to detect and understand
phenomena in the natural world.
The first three types of intelligences that Gardner proposed are measured by
intelligence tests, but the othe