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Full Year of Psych Notes.doc

108 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

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o Stimulation of specific areas on brain resulted in movements of particular muscles · Karl Lashley damaged specific regions of brain and studied effects on learning and memory abilities in animals trained to run through mazes · In 1929, invention of electroencephalogram (EEG) allowed researchers to measure electrical activity of large areas of brain Evolution and Behaviour · Darwin’s theory of natural selection demonstrated that inheritable characteristics that increase likelihood of survival would be maintained. Proposed that humans and apes arose from the same ancestor. · Evolutionary psychology focuses on role of evolution in development of human behaviour o Psychologists stress organism’s biology determine its behavioural capabilities and behaviour · Sociobiology holds that complex social behaviours are built into human species as products of evolution o Natural selection favors behaviours that increase ability to pass on genes (aggression, competition, dominance in males, cooperation and nurturing in females, etc.) o Sociobiologists believe that one’s genetic survival is more important than one’s own physical survival (altruism) o Criticized for overemphasizing innate biological factors at expense of cultural and social learning factors in explaining complex human social behaviour Behaviour Genetics · Study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors · Animals can be bred not only for physical, but also behavioural traits (aggression, intelligence, etc.) · Identical twins, with identical genetic makeup, are very similar in behaviour compared to fraternal twins o Found even when identical twins reared in different homes The Cognitive Perspective · Views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning. What sets humans apart is that we have mental capabilities. o Studies how mental processes influence our motives, emotions, and behaviour · Several schools and individuals contributed to modern cognitive perspective: o Structuralism  Analysis of mind in terms of its basic elements  Studied sensations through introspection (“looking within”). Patients were exposed to stimuli and asked to explain their experiences.
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