psychology 1000.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Semester
Summer

Description
Note These notes combine lecture and textbook for Dr Laura FazakasDehoogNote She goes a bit off textbook and here and there for the last few lectures so sometimes lecture notes and textbook notes are separate Chapter One Psychology psychesoul spirit self or lifeoloybranch of knowledgescientific study of behaviour actions responses that can be observed and mind internal states and processesGoals describe understand predict control aspects of behaviourSubfields of PsychologyClinical studytreatment of mental disordersCognitive study of mental processes ESP mind as info processorBiopsychology biological underpinnings hormones genes brain processeshow evolution shaped psychological capacities advanced thinking altruistic behaviourDevelopmental physical psychological social development over lifespanExperimental basic processes such as learning sensory perception motivational states usually involves nonhuman test subjectsIndustrialorganizational IO behaviour in workplace identify best job applicants and design systems to evaluate performancePersonality core personlity traits how traits are relatedinfluence on behaviour tests to measure personalitySocialthoughts feelings behaviour pertaining to social world behaviour in group form impressionsattitudes Roots of Psychology1PhilosophyNativism focus on hereditary factorsTraditionally suggested that all knowledge is innate and inherited genetically as we age language and knowledge develops EmpericismAristotle knowledge gained through observation and senses gain knowl from environment concerned with experienceupbringing environmentMUST be observable thoughts dreams language notRationalism PhilosophersAristotle founder of empiricism environment and upbringing shape cognitive abilitiesJohn Locke nothing can exist within the intellect that did not have origins in the sensesTabula Rasablank state experiences write upon this slate 2Natural ScienceSystematic performed according to system of rules or conditionsWhy cant take everyday approach 1 mental shortcuts statistics various instruments2 fail to consider alternative explanationscontrolled environment3 confirmation bias public scrutiny Phrenology Franz Gall Bumps in skulloverdeveloped regions groovesunderdeveloped Cranioscopy understand personality through bumpsgroovesFLOURENS not localized areas of brain GALL but entire brain working in synchronyPsychophysics study of how psychologically experienced sensations depended on physical stimuliDarwinnatural selection survival of fittest humans are not special and therefore can be studied Ivan Sechenov physiologist all complex behaviourreflexes concerned about nervous systemfunction Subfields of PsychologyClinical psychology study and treatment of mental disordersHistory of Studying Behaviour Wilhelm Wundt est first psych lab 1879 in Leipzig Germanydeveloped structuralism studied elemental components and structure of human mindconsciousness same phenomena cognitive studied todayMethodology Introspection let subject describe stimulus introspectionWeaknesses subjective not verifiable fail to consider all environmentalinternal influences alternative explanations such as articulation mental state willingness to share of subjectHermann von Ebbinghaus understanding memory processes how learn how forgotMethodology taught children list then checked how much they rememberedWilliam James NA impacted by Darwin Functionalism functions and purposes of consciousnessmental process in adapting to environment lead to cognitive and evolutionary fields of psychologyJohn Watson 1920srise of behaviourismEmpiricist concentrate on observable behaviour esp animals time psychology lost its mind no more mental processesIvan Pavlov conditioning ORIGINThorndike law of effect responses with good consequencesbad consequences ORIGINSkinner we do not act upon the world the world acts upon usbehaviour modification decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive behaviours by manipulating environmental factorsWolfgang Kohler Gestalt Psychology The wholesum of its partsinterested not in basic elements but how it is organizedSigmund Freud pschodynamic perspective born Austrian physician that focussed on mental illnesspsychoanalytic theory of mental disorders unconscious early childhoodtime when children had no rights psychosexual stages of developmentfree association patients expressed any thoughts that came to mindstart of clinical psychology Modern HistoryCognitive Revolution 1950s return to scientific study of mentalprocesses thoughts feelingscognitive behaviourism learning experiences and environment affect our behaviour by giving us info we need to behave effectivelyWWII research on obedienceconformity war crimes socialpsychologyDesegregation prejudiceracismMulticulturalism cultural differences and how transmitted Basic and Applied ScienceDevelopingtesting theoriesBasic knowledge for own sakeApplied all research has apps BUT these are designed for single purpose of solving problemsPsychiatrist MD treat disorders vs Psychologist PhD clinicaldisordersMost psychprivate otherwiseunicollege teaching research admin gov serviceswW Levels of Analysis an approach to analyzing behavioural phenomena and their causal factors in terms of biological psychological and environmental factors
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