Lecture 1- September 18, 2012
Course ID: skinner07732
Definition of Psychology
• 8% of psychological research are performed with animals
• page 66-67 is why they study on animals
• Study animals finding to extrapolate to human conditions
I) The Science of Psychology
Methods of Psychology
• Psycho surgery is the process between brain process and behavior known as psycho surgeons,
interested in the relationship between the brain and the behavior
• Thalamus transports the information about emotions to the cortex
• Lobotomy side affects of obesity and in continents (losing control of your bowel
removements), lazy, apathetic, lacking in initiative. Lose their ability to think abstractively and
leads to promiscuous display in public places.
• The usual procedure is to experiment on primate brains and only move to people when the side
affects are to become more or less fool proof.
- Were used to treat epilepsy by removing parts of the brain that were affected
- Tremendous amount of research that’s tested on drugs
• Psycho pharmacology the affects of drugs on human behavior tested on birds (pigeons), various
rodents (mat, rice, guinea pigs), primates (chimpanzee’s)
- Drug was developed to help combat Rubella (German measles) for pregnant women, it
also helped morning sickness. The babies were born with missing limbs or shortened
- Viagra was meant for a heart medication but now it’s known as helping older men with
• Antivivisectionist is against the cutting of animals, is it ethical to use animals if you’re going to
change their appearance physically.
• Social psychology is the study of groups
• The mind and cognitive observances are only inferred and not amenable from direct study. The
only direct study is the outside structure and behavior are directly observable therefore
• Learning perspective should be called the behavioral perspective in the textbook
• The up side to behavior is observable and measurable, the cons of numbers are taken too
• Stimulus--> Response
R = f(S) (learning perspective)
- Bright light (stimulus) into the eye which makes your pupils constrict or incoming chalk
(stimulus) and response would be to move away because it’s just a shock.
• S --> Organism --->R or the cognitive approach
R = f(S,O)
• Behavioral perspective uses the S ---> R model
Lecture 2- September 25, 2012
Methods of Psychology • Doesn’t see correlational as a method in psychology
• a) Field Observation (Naturalistic observation)
- Observing behavior in the field as it naturally occurs in the world.
- Jane Goodall where she studies chimpanzees their personal traits and compare it
to human beings. 5-10% of the population are left handed. Left handed = right
brain dominated with visual understanding, creativity, non verbal side of the brain
- The majority of things are designed towards right handed people instead of left
- Left handed are 85% more likely to have an accident than right handed people.
45% more likely to have a workplace injury.
- Field observations are usually done with humans but sometimes animals too.
- Alot can be learned about animals and humans from observation but there’s
often problems like odd behavior.
- Field observations are the most obvious in descriptive and for it to be useful it
has to be done systematically and the person has to be observed in many different
situations and as many time as you can in each situation. Or observe as many
different people in that situation as many times. If properly carried out in the two
ways, the naturalistic observation can be told about humans and animals.
- Anthropomorphism something you have to guard against if you’re doing
experiments on animals. Imputing a human feelings towards an animal.
- Can only describe what you naturally observed, can’t explain why the behavior
• b) Survey
- Conditions that need to be met-- surveyors must fully understand the purpose of
the survey and be skillful of this administration. Methods of analyzing of
reporting the results must be straight forward. The sample of people being
surveyed must be representative of the larger population where the survey is
going to be applied or generalized.The survey questions must not generate
unhelpful (non-discriminating and/or bias) answers.
- Making people answer yes or no is the forcing technique.
- Even if the survey has met all the conditions it could still be wrong.
• c) “Clinical” Methods (used by clinicians and non-clinicians)
๏ Interviews and Rating
- What group is the most common would be clinical psychologies
- By interviewing their patients and by using the rating scales.
- Ask client questions and with the clients permission will talk to their
family members about them and ask them to evaluate the client on a rating
- Wants to get some sense of the clients past.
- 10 - 20 ratings per person who’s being rated.
- Clinician must be aware of the relationships between each person who’s
๏ Tests ‣ Subjective
- Asking them to tell you about themselves. Pros: If done honestly,
you’ll get useful information. Cons: You can fake it easily.
- Paper and pencil testing
- Test of the sticking your hand in ice cold water is a test for
- Can’t figure out what the test is going to test
- Pros: Yield a large amount of information about a lot of people
quickly without disturbing the daily routine or requiring complex
๏ Longitudinal case study
- Tracks over a long period of time.
- Non-clinical longitudinal studies: Temperamental behavior and
- Pros: relatively easy to use descriptive methods. Cons: No matter how accurate,
honest, etc your methods was, all you can do is describe what you’ve been
looking at but not able to explain it because you’re not in control.
Lecture 3- October 2, 2012
Methods of Psychology
• Experimental methods
• Intervening in situations systematically by conducting experiments
- Using experiments are carried out in labs, especially with animals
- Doesn’t have to be, can be done in field experiments
- ex) Urinal for when guys go to the washroom and if they’re
surrounded by other guys it’ll take them more time to pee than
when they’re not surrounded by other guys on each side.
- Experimentation are matters of logic not location
- In control of the conditions that give rise to the behavior you’re interested in.
- ex) Test rats of the same age, gender, breed. The only difference would
be their early experiences; one group would be in the dark and the other
group would be exposed to images and light. To see if they know how to
go to the block with the food behind.
- ex) will rats who are hungry learn to run a maze more quickly if there’s a
bigger food reward at the end--does the size of the reward affect the rate of
the rats learning.
- Operational definition; defines something in terms how it’s measured.
- Expectations people act differently than what they were told
- Use experimental control to obviate the expectation.
- ex) All subjects are told what the experiment is about and are
doing the same thing by remembering a word list after being sleep
deprived would be asked to recall the list is the control group. How to identify the control group is the group that has the least done to
it or least manipulated. The other group is given a pill that contains
caffeine without them knowing the stimulant. The other group is
given which contains no active ingredient aka a placebo.
- Double blind studies where the experimenter doesn’t know and the
participants don’t know what’s going on as well.
- If the brain is removed because it’s been destroyed by radiation is known
as extirpation. If it’s taken out it’s called ablation. Lesion is where
they make a cut in the brain.
- Amygdala lesion makes the brain become more positivity. Septa lesions
make you become more aggressive.
- Replication which is an advantage to be able to do the experiments more than
- It increases the validity of what you were trying to find and especially if you get
the same results every time.
- If an experiment can be replicated it can be replicated almost anywhere.
- Replication is also convenient.
- Avariable that something that varies. It’s a condition or a factor that can
change usually in value or degree.
- ex) Age, height, smartness, weight
- It’s a vary in a quantifiable way that change is measurable.
- Low birth weight sometimes impairs learning ability.
- Two main kinds of variable: independent that is a condition that is set
and/or selected or manipulated by the experimenter. Independent variables
is age. Dependent is called dependent because changes in it are
dependent are depending upon the independent variable.
- Independent variable is some aspect of what the experimenter is doing,
which is the cause. The dependent variable is some aspect of what the
participant and subject is doing in that experiment, which is the effect.
Experimenter has no direct control over the dependent variable.
- Dependent variable y-axis is the ordinate, independent variable x-axis is
-a3i; a- artificiality, i- inappropriate, i- interference effects, i- (errors of)
- Experimental method is not always appropriate to study something.
Inappropriate to study something important and is sometimes artificial
because it’s in the lab and not in the real place. The gym would be an
artificial place to judge somebody on their football skills as opposed to the
football field. The experimental control might actually interfere with what
you’re trying to study.
- If you have the control then you have to explain on what was going on.
Lecture 4- October 9, 2012
II) Biological bases of behavior
• “Psychology has a long past but a short history”- Erbinchaus 1850 - 1909 • Pre-scientific psychology is the short history
• Fechner 1861 - 1887
• Helmholtz 1821 - 1894
• Wundt 1879 - first to open a laboratory in psychology when the short history began.
• 6 degrees of separation; where you’re connected to 6 other people
• Trephaining is where you’re drilling holes in the skull
• The abnormal behavior had something to do that there was something wrong inside people’s
• Phrenology is pseudo psychology; read in the textbook.
• Reductionist is when we know enough we can process it and it follows the KISS rule (keep it
•Nervous System and genetics; basic knowledge on how the brain operates 113 - 22 in ch
4. Don’t expect to know pg 123-26. Need to know about the main parts of the brain and
their functions pg bottom 129 - 133. No need to know pg 127- 29 the hindbrain. No to
split brain pg 135-137. Yes to two hemispheres pg 137 - 138. Chp 3 is genetics for nov
test, 74 - 81 genetics of similarity and pg 93 - 96 genetics of differences. Know the main
divisions of the NS pg 111. Chp 4; cautions and controversies read pgs 126, 139-142
III) Sensing, perceiving and consciousness
- Each of us can perceive differently but we do perceive differently
- Closing your eye and extending your arm is a testing of lateral
- Retinal parallax, where it’s not the same which means no two people
have the same retinal images as anybody else.
- You’re knowing of the outside and inside world
-Aware of the presence by sense or detect because we can see and hear the
- Collectively by our senses where we perceive comes via to our mind
- Transducers convert one energy to another
- Visual, auditory, olfactory (smell), gustation (taste), touch (pressure, pain
and temperature; cold or hot), vestibular, kinesthetic
- Know vision- hue and brightness and saturation pg 198, how color vision
works pg 202-03, 203 - 10. sight pg 198-201 you don’t need to know it the
diagram of the eye. Hearing know loudness, pitch and timber 211-12, 214
but not the bottom of 212 to the top of 214. Smell and taste no need to
know pg 215-219. Yes to the skin senses is pain 219- 221 from 222- 230
- psi - esp ; mt, c, precognition and psychokinesis
๏ Cognition means the same thing as perception
- Sense of balance
Lecture 5- October 16, 2012 b) The Senses
• The 10 senses makes us aware of the external and internal instincts
• Our senses are sensitive to only 8% of the stimulation that’s out there, 92% of
the stimulations out there we’re insensitive to.
• a spectrum of electromagnetic energy outside of us, runs through many waves
• We’re sensitive to 380 nanometers to 780nm, a tiny part of the electromagnetic
• Auditory we’re aware of 20 to 20,000 cycles per second. We might not be able
to hear 18 cycles but we’re aware of it kinesthetically like by feeling it. Dogs are
sensitive to above 20,000 cycles and their sense of smells is 5x better than
• According to Letivin frogs can see in light to dark contrast, small dark moving
objects. Sensitive to moving edge of light or shadow. Sudden reduction to
illumination. Frogs only have rods. Humans have rods and cones which helps us
• Different species have different reactions to stimulation; humans see in color
and precise detail.
• Different organisms within species have different reactions to stimulations
makes it very difficult to make general statements about capacity, efficiency and
acuity to senses.
- ex) Sense of hearing; older people have worse hearing than younger
people. Conduction deafness can’t hear stuff because theirs something
wrong with their ears. Nerve deafness it occurs when you age, have
difficult with high speech sounds.
• Psychophysics can’t be defined as the study of the sensory consequences of the
control physical stimulation. It’s the attempt to get around of the two physical
problems that the organisms and species react to the sensations.
• Thresholds- what is the minimum detectable stimulus intensity.
• Absolute threshold- the stimulus intensity detectable on 50% of its
presentations, about half the time. But it varies from person to person and from
situation to situation.
• Difference threshold; minimum detectable change in stimulus intensity aka just
• Weber’s Law; a law about the difference thresholdΔI / I = K, I = stimulus
intensity and that K is Weber’s constant.
- For every stimulus, there is some constant percentage of stimulus
intensity that must be added to or subtracted from that stimulus for a
difference to be detected. If the difference it too small then it can’t be
detected if it’s large then it’ll be detected.
• Psychophysics usually works but in practice there are so many things going on
that it could be problematic
• Signal detection tries to eliminate psychological factors (motivation and
d) Perceptual Stability (The world is a perceptually stable place)
๏ Perceptual Constancy - The shape of the door is rectangle depending on where you’re viewing it
from it looks like it changed but it really hasn’t.
- 5 visual constants; brightness, color, location, size and shape
- When looking at an item from the day to at night, the item looks either
black or grey but it’s still the same it’s just the lighting
- If things weren’t constant then things would be problematic
- Perceptual constance is extremely important.
- How does it operate through a combination of experience in learning and
embedding in logic
Lecture 5- October 23, 2012
๏ Perceptual Organization
- unlearned capacity and therefore tendency to organize incoming
sensations into patterns. Patterns are usually called gestalt (form or
• Principle of figure/ground:
- Have the innate ability to distinct the object, pattern and event
(figures) from it’s background (ground).
-Figure has a shape, boundary quality and the ground is formless
and continuous or underneath the ground.
- ex) clock is the figure, wall is the ground. You can distinguish the
difference between the two.
- ex) Can’t be distinguished because of the reversible figure. Like
where a picture looks like two things and you can’t really tell the
• Principle of contour
- can distinguish figure from ground because a contour occurs
when there’s a mark change in some aspect or aspects of incoming
• Principle of grouping
- laws of similarity, symmetry, continuation, proximity
- grouping things that are similar to each other
- tend to group things tend to the nearness of proximity to each
• Principle of closure
- Unlearned tendency to perceive more information than it’s
• Principle of apparent movement
- Movement that appears to be moving but it actually isn’t moving.
- Conflicting information that creates the illusion
- Insufficient information
← e) Sleep and Dreams (don’t need to know for the first test)
- Move physically when asleep; sleep walking. - Mentally active while asleep. We’re also aware of the time like we wake
up before our alarm clock goes off.
๏ Sleep length
- Average of sleep is 7hr 36 mins
- People can sleep for a short amount of time and it would still be enough
- Long sleepers could be because they’re trying to escape what lies ahead
- Dement people who slept longer than 8 hrs tend to live longer
- Micro-sleep while we’re awake, we could fall asleep without even
-Optimal amount to sleep would be 5-8hrs
- pg 522 about the developing of our brain at a certain age
- Sleeping habits are able to change like the length of sleep we get
Lecture 6- October 30, 2012
๏ Sleep highlights
- Brain wave activity reveals four different electrical patterns while we
sleep in the brain, which refers to different stages of the sleep
- Alpha (lightest), beta, gamma, delta (deepest) sleep
- Stage 1: 30%, Stage 2: 35%, Stage 3: 20%, Stage 4: 15%
- Stage 1 sleep REM happens, the eyes will be moving beneath the
eyelids. If you try to wake somebody up during stage 1, they’ll think
they were dreaming. Happens about every 90 mins, probably happens 4
or 5 times during our sleep and it gets longer every time.
c.ffffffffffffffffffff.a.a. Why is REM sleep often called “paradoxical sleep”?
- Physiologically when we’re in stage 1REM sleep our bodies are
very close to being awake but behaviorally it’s very difficult to
wake somebody up during REM stage 1.
- Heart rate and breath rate are higher.
- Adrenaline levels are higher than in other stages of sleep, same
with blood flow and it sexually arouses us.
- Arms and leg muscles are very relaxed and flaccid
- Jouvet removed the medulla oblongata from the brain of the cats
they continued to sleep and have REM sleep but they didn’t lose
their muscle tone
c.ffffffffffffffffffff.a.b. Do eye movements reflect what is happening in the
- That the eye movements usually don’t reflect what you’re
dreaming - The rapidity of the eye moving, it could reflect on the level of
activity in the dream.
c.ffffffffffffffffffff.a.c. Does everyone dream the same amount?
- Yes we dream the same amount, in the sense that we dream for
about every 90 mins
- But if we compare it on the length of sleep we get then no,
because we sleep at different lengths of time which is less amount
- Some people are able to remember a lot from their dreams while
others are not
- Dream at two levels; as participants and also as an observer
- By squeezing somebody while they sleep, it affects their posture
in their sleep.
c.ffffffffffffffffffff.a.d. Can a person react to the outside world without
waking from a dream?
- Yes they can, if you say somebody’s name quietly and repeatedly
they’ll probably recall about it when they’re awake.
c.ffffffffffffffffffff.a.e. Why do we dream?
- Dreams as thinking explanation, cognitive approach to dreaming.
Dreams are manifestation of us processing of what our waking lies
like current concerns
- Dream content must be based on memory
- Dreams are based on memory conceptions
- Adults may dream things based on memory, that might not be the
same for younger people.
- Roffwarg had a hypothesis that for the fetuses brain to develop
optimally then it should be stimulated a lot
- DAMIT dreams (Dreams of absent minded transgression); people
who are trying to stop drinking or smoking will dream about
having a relapse.
- If you didn’t have the experience then you wouldn’t be able to
dream about it.
- Dreams of efforts that deals with problem solving
- Freud dreams represent the vicarious fulfillment of a wish or
impulse, most usually an impulse or wish that would be aggressive
and/or sexual in nature, that is not or cannot be gratified or fulfilled
during waking moments. Can satisfy them during their dreams.
- William Dement difficult to awake a dreamer and that freud said
that dreams guard our sleep, and dement said that people need to
- REM rebound
Lecture 7- November 6th, 2012
• Jouvet removed the pontine tegmenjtum but didn’t have REM sleep
• Cats died because they ate too much or engaged in sexual activity.
• Suggests that REM is important and that you shouldn’t mess with it. • Will do no evil if you: hear, speak or see no evil
• Sleep will be a longer of REM sleep when somebody’s a drying alcoholic. If we over
drink and we don’t feel good the next morning it’s because it cuts down on our dream
• All theories might have merit and some might be useless
• Blind people do dream but they don’t dream in visual images. They dream in
temperatures and that blue is cold and red is hot. Blind people have to rely on their sense
of hearing. It’s more auditory than visual.
f) Night Terrors or Nightmares (Pavor Nocturni)
• Mare means devil in an old german language
• Definition of Nightmare: Oppressive or terrifying sleep experience. Incubus means evil
spirits, devil or monsters usually female descends on sleeping persons.
• Night terrors and nightmares are stage 4 problems which is the delta stage.
• Stage 4 sleep is where they’re in very deep sleep.
• Bad dreams are stage 1 phenomenon
• Wake people up in stage 1 sleep is that their heart rate is low because they’re almost
awake. In stage 4 it’ll be a massive increase in heart rate.
• During stage 4 sleep that they were very frightened and that they had difficulty
• People suffering from nightmares often have some sort of health problem which could
trigger night terrors. Two problems: heart problems or where the heart races from time to
time, if it’s not a heart issue then it could be asthma.
• Night terrors are related to disturbances in the autonomic nervous system
• Sleep 4 is uncontrolled anxiety and that in stage 1 it’s controlled anxiety
• People who have frequent nightmares might suffer from uncontrolled anxiety
• Can reduce stage 4 with simple medication
← Lecture 8- November 13, 2012
IV) Learning and Memory
๏ Definition of Learning
- Look on pg 286 for the definition of learning
- That in our learning there’s a change of behavioral where learning
increases or decreases in learned responses
- Learning is the happening or the results in our experience
- Arthur Jensen 1964: Learning is that which may be said to have occurred
when there is a change in a probability in a specified response following
the cessation of a specified stimulus situation, excluding changes due to
physical growth (maturation) and changes due to physical or chemical
alternation of the nervous system.
- Examples of the exclusions: Imprinting for ducks, where the ducklings
follow an older duck thinking it’s their mother. The following
response emerges between the 13 - 16 hours where they’ve matured and
will follow anything around. It’s not a product of learning it’s a product of
maturation. - ex) Suckling behavior emerges because of maturation like when babies
are born and know how to drink milk from mothers, they know how to
naturally do it.
- Examples of physical and chemical alteration in the NS: MohammedAli
he shuffles when he walks and mumbles when he talks and sounds weird
because he was getting hit in the head too many times and it’s due to
- Alcoholic psychosis where brain tissue is destroyed by alcohol, where
they have too much alcohol in their blood.
- Plato doctrine of association: We learn to connect in our memory things
which occur together in our experience, such that if we think of or
remember one we tend to think of or remember the other.
- Examples of association: Lightning bolts striking and then shortly
after the thunder happens, is that they occur together and it’s like
๏ Type of Learning
i. Classical Conditioning
a) Basic Paradigm
1. Test for Pseudo conditioning
2. Before Conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus (US) eg) noise→ Unconditioned Response
(UR) eg) Fear
3. During Conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus (US) eg) noise + Conditioning Stimulus (CS)
↘ Unconditioned Response (UR) eg) fear
4. After conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus (CS) eg) Rat → Conditioned Response (CR) eg)
- Watson and Reiner got permission from the mother since she
wanted him to become more responsive.Albert is not afraid of the
white rat when it was introduced to him, which is a test for pseudo
conditioning. Then the noise of the metal pipe was banged against
his ear and then he cried.After he gave them the rat and then
banged the metal pipe against his ears.After several trials when he
was given the white rat he was afraid of it. Now he has a
classically conditioned fear of the white rat.
- Same behavior repeated twice is the same for UR and CR.
- When the women sees a naked man 2. UC = nudity → UR =
response. 3. US = nudity → UR = blush + CS = coat. 4. CS = coat
→ CR = blush
b) Related Phenomena
- Stimulus generalization higher order conditioning,
the hairier, furrier and whiter the more likely he’ll be afraid of it.
The more similar to the white rat the more albert would be afraid
of the white rat. The generalization of the description of the white
rat will be similar to it.
- Physical similarity is the same as - the envelopes was always carried by the prof, so that whenever
his wife saw him he was the second order stimulus and that the
envelopes were the first one.
- where a rabbit is leaped out at him out of nowhere is
- Extinction- It’s not as strong as the time before and that it
starts to get less strong. The more intense the CS the more
traumatic it is and that it is less likely that the extinction will occur.
-1920 Watson was fired and that’s when he did the stuff to his son
- Brought in a white rabbit, fear while he was eating which is a
pleasure and would take a step closer each time just standing there.
Christmas exam - 60 M/C, chapter 1&2- 5 questions, 3 &4- 1 lecture
question, 6- 6 questions, 5-12 sleep related questions, 7- 24 on classical or
operant condition, 10- 12 questions
Lecture 9- November 20, 2012
ii. Operant/Instrumental Conditioning
a. Basic Paradigm
-Catatonic where you can hold an unusual posture for a long time
and that if you brought the arm down it’ll go back up with a
response of negative reflexes.
- Operant is where you’re awarded with things tend to have more
and more useful consequences for classical.
- Operant/instrumental condition is usually under the learners
- Voluntary responses, going to church when his wife wasn’t even
there it was a voluntary
- Thorndykes law of effect:A response is followed by a
satisfaction will be more likely to reoccur.Aresponse followed by
a neutral or unsatisfactory experiences will be likely to reoccur.
b. Reinforcement and Punishment
-Reinforcement where there’s something awarded or something
bad taken away.
- Reinforcement positive or negative has a single purpose to
increase the probability of behavior.
- ex) If you study by reinforcing by getting good grades, being
praised and getting scholarship money is a positive reinforcement.
- Punishment intended to decrease the probability of the behavior.
- ex) If a child runs into the streets and his parents punish him by
spanking him, the child would less likely run into the streets again
since something unpleasant has been added to the situation which
is an example of positive punishment.
- With positive punishment something unpleasant is added t the
situation to be discouraged from frowned upon decisions
- B.F. Skinner did lots of experiments with rats and monkeys and
did the pioneer work of the operant/instrumental conditioning - Disks in the skinner box where it’s call a manipulandium, where
the pigeons would peck for food or water
c. Schedules of Reinforcement
- Every time you do something and you get rewarded is known as
- Sometimes but not all the time are you rewarded is known as
- Ratio is after a numerous amount of responses
- Fixed ratio is an operation and that reinforcement is delivered
after a fixed number of responses behaviors that has occurred
- ex) Every tire made is a representative of fixed ratio since you’re
getting paid to make one more tire each time.
- Variable ratio is on average a number of fixed number of
- ex) On average it’s after a certain amount of numbers of coin
- Interval is after a certain time that has passed
- ex) Rat on a 50 second fixed interval schedule, it’s not going to
get anything else, to eat or drink until that 50 seconds is up.
- Variable interval delivered on average
- Those associations won’t be formed if things aren’t occurring
together in a timely option
- Reinforcement must follow behavior in a timely fashion slowly.
- If a child watches a movie and there’s a crime that’s committed in
the movie in the beginning but doesn’t get punished till later, the
memory will not stick.
- Schedule reinforcement are very useful and powerful ways of
putting people in making them do whatever. ex) Squirrels water
skiing since they hate water.
- Caroline was put on an operational schedule where smarties were
the reward and after earning a lot of smarties, she told her father to
clean her room if she gave him 10 smarties.
iii. Observational learning
Lecture 10- November 27, 2012
- The definition of memory is retained learning, whereas remembering is
the process by which we retrieve memory
๏ Three-Box Model of Memory
- Takes time to move on could be a year or hours, depends.
- Elaborative rehearsal to focus on information and make a connection to
the things we already know. It also assists with the consolidation process
which occurs naturally, usually while we’re sleeping. - Make memories from going short to long term is where we try to connect
things which is also known as elaborative rehearsal. It could be happening
in the hippocampus in the temporal lobe.
- Hippocampus is crucial to the consolidation process, same with sleep.
๏ Explanations for Remembering
- Long term memories are those memories that last for a life time because
when they’re learned it takes place in RNAmolecules, and that the older
they get the harder it takes to make RNAand have difficulty to create new
- Memories exist physically in new protein molecules (RNA)
๏ Types of Remembering
- Process of remembering without the benefits of cues
- a.k.a pure remembering without any help
- Ebbinghaus is better known for his pioneer work in the study of
memory. He invented the nonsense syllable and began with cvc
(constant vowel constant) nonsense syllables
-Recognizing information with the reminding of cues maybe when
from original learning
- Amore sensitive form of memorizing.
- can recognize the information from the multiple choice
- Upside: It’s like a fun time of memory like when you recognize
somebody you haven’t seen for a long time
- Primacy effect where the first and last thing you remember but in
the middle you don’t remember anything.
-Downside:Yerky’s Dodson Law: In many instances there will be
optimal performance at some intermediate level of arousal. Various
circumstances can compromise or interfere with the efficiency of
recognition. The more aroused you are when it’s a hard exam it
results in a lower performance
-Expectations where people were given two cups of the same drink
and they thought one was good but the other one tasted bad..when
in reality it was the same drink.
Lecture 11- December 4th, 2012
- Is difficult to study and not in textbooks
- Significant proportion of our memory is redintergration memory
- Not remembering on a whole bunch of cues and also without any.
Is remembering on fragmentary and partial cues
- An aroma or smell is a sufficient redintergrative cue that causes
us to remember a bunch of fragmented memories
- The first two lines of the song is when the snow starts falling the
memories of the break up comes back up
- Flashbulb memory are vivid memories of emotional events - Things that were to occur together in experience reoccur in our
memory together again and are connected in our memory
- The method of savings, you learn it and then time passes and then
you over it again to relearn it shouldn’t take too long
- Relearning is the best way to regain retention
๏ Types of Forgetting
- Two kinds ofAmnesia: Psychogenic and traumatic; psychogenic
amnesia doesn’t last very long and if the memories come back
they’re incomplete and that traumatic may last for years and can be
recalled back with accuracy and perfectly detailed.
- Repression is not required to recall them
- Retro grade amnesia where he has a loss of memory prior to the
trauma of the even like the accident. It’s usually psychological.
-Anterograde amnesia a loss of event after the trauma of the event.
Is usually physical explanation
-Faulty original learning, the original learning was wrong even
though they learned it what they’re learning wasn’t right.
- ABAR- Learn the first, learn the second, try to learn the first and
it’s called Retractive
Experimental Group Learn A, learn B, Learn A, Learn B,
Remember A Remember B
Control Group Learn A, take a break, Take a break, Learn B,
Remember A Remember B
- The use it or lose it explanation. If we don’t use memory that we
have it will decay over a number of years.
- The memory that hasn’t been used for several years haven’t
decayed, like riding a bike you still know how to do it after a long
amount of years of not riding one
i. Retrieval failure
- We have more memories than we think we do, it’s just that we
can’t retrieve the memories
- Learn Aand learn B and that B replacesA, it’s similar to
- If you learn something, what you initially learned will help you
learn another thing by positively transferring - Once we learn how to drive CarA the skills will transfer
positively to Car B which is a different type of car and you’ll know
how to drive that car.
- Proactive interference is also known as negative transfer, car
driving to boat driving = positive transfer since it’s the same
wheel. Negative transfer when the boat is something different and
it moves to the opposite direction compared to the car you drive.
Lecture 12- January 8th, 2013
V) Motivation and Emotion
- Motivation an inferred process within an animal and human that causes
movement either towards a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
- Any condition of an organism that affects its readiness to start upon or
continue in the sequence of behavior
- Motives can be defined as the causes of behavior which could be
movement or not movement
- Motives have three functions; serve to activate, guide and maintain
behavior over time
- An inferred process, motives are not observable they’re internal
- The difficulty is to observe what the motives are in that particular
- Related difficulty, what’s motivating furkurling behavior (his son)
๏ Classification (check the chart in planner)
- Primary; inborn and unlearned and Secondary; acquired and learned
- Survival are physiologically deficit, it could eventually harm you at the
end if we lack one of the survival needs
- General where manipulation is usually curiosity
- Secondary where it’s learned for fears and social motives
- Learned fear is the dark, where they can become to be afraid of the dark
- Social motives cause people to learn how to achieve those three states
๏ Achievement Motivation
- Sometimes referred to the need to achieve
- David McClelland where he did his work on the need for achievement
- Research question: Why do secondary motives develop in different
strengths in different people?
- Why are some people joiners or party animals a.k.a affiliating with other
people, whereas other people are loners and reclusive.
- Develop a method for measuring the strength of secondary motives such
- i) under suitable conditions motives can be aroused. The prof is hungry
because he hasn’t eaten for a while and that if somebody offered him food and somebody who has already eaten food, the prof would be more likely
to take the offer for food
- ii) once aroused, motives will influence “fantasy”. Fantasy in the sense
of story telling about ambiguous pictures. Projective tests ask the subject
to interpret the stimulus that has no obvious meaning
- Projective tests: word association, sentence completion, Rorschach (ink
blot tests), thematic appreciation test (asks people to tell stories about
ambiguous pictures and to answer three questions: what is happening,
what led up to happening and what will happen next in this picture?).
- Wanted to generate different levels of achievement motivation;
• Relax- where nobody hasn’t done them yet and that they just
want somebody to try it first
• Success- administrative skills to select people for positions of
government and universities and tells them the past results of the
previous test takers
• Achievement-oriented- No norms were never announced, wasn’t
given any info to compare how well they did on the test
• Failure- The norms were announced and that they were led to
think that they did poorly
• Success-failure- Students after the first test were led to think
they did very well and then that after later on they were told that
they were doing poorly
- Margaret Winterbottom was a small experiment where she had 29
mothers with 8 year old son’s, did the same thematic appreciation test with
- Mothers who had high achievement of motivation weren’t babying their
children for their whole life’s and doing everything for them and that the
moms wanted the children to be self reliant.
- Mother’s who motivated the children to be self reliant grew up to be that
the children grew up to want to try their best and hardest in whatever
situation because of the early self reliance
- Achievement of motivation is to do one’s best
- There’s a link between protestantism has encouraged self reliance in
children which leads to adults having high levels of achievement
motivations which would connect to capitalism
- David Mccullan was a secondary motivation for achieved motivation
- Logically there should be no reasons to have high achievement to do
well economically in law, science or business
- 6 jobs where they’re interested in by high achievement motivation that
they were attracted to: stockbroker, office manager, sales manager, buyer,
real estate salesperson, factory manager
- Dated data if you were to compare protestants and catholics in 2012 and
to 1950, they’re completely different far less than from before
- Correlation seems to tell us that things vary together and that one things
are not caused by one another - Machiavellianism was italian that came from the long dead, it suggests
that other people are controlling other people for their own good. In social
psychology it has a narrower definition; interpersonal manipulation and
that you are skillful at manipulating others. It’s not necessarily bad since
you’re successful at it.
- christie- people who were machiavellianism should have high
achievement motivation so that they’re able to do well
← Lecture 13- January 15th, 2013
๏Emotion and Motivation
- How might emotion and motivation be connected?
- Not motivated to put his hand on the burner again because of the
fear. The emotion of fear and relief are feelings that accompanied
motivated behavior by moving his hand away.
- behavior is to Plays golf to be motivated to not have another heart
attack which is pleasure
- emotions can just be accompaniments of the behavior and can
- Some emotions are just the feeling states that accompany the
- Emotions can become motives which are causes of the behaviors.
- James-Lang (1890) worked together and they proposed the theory
of emotion where behavior produces emotion.
- Cannon-Bard where emotions would lead to behaviors
- ex) fear of being mugged leads to the behavior of running
away. Physical changes and our cognitive ability which
allows us to identify and connect to the physical changes
that are happening
- Schachter 2 Factor theory in an emotion producing situation
could lead to a numerous amount of physical changes.
Physiological changes and interpretation of the physical changes
๏ Emotional Development
- Two kinds of emotions: Primary (inborn) and secondary
- Primary emotions; anger, fear, surprised, joy, content and more
- Secondary emotions: vary from one culture to another
- Are they inherited or are they acquired from the environment.
- the intensity of the emotions will be modified by the environment
- Anger: -Interference with goulder activity
- Anger aggression comes from frustration
- Carson (1930)- overreacting to things that are more known as
annoying.Asked 600 people between 10-90 asking them what 30
things annoys them the most. From 18000 to 2600 and groups the
rest into groups of annoyances. 1st group: 4.something physical characteristics of people that cannot be altered (old people who’s
eyes always water, snot dangling out of kids noses), 2nd group:
5.3% on physical characteristics that can be altered that usually
aren’t (poor posture especially on tall women), 3rd group: 12.4%
clothes and manner of dress including grooming (clothes that
didn’t look nice compared to him), 4th group: 18.8% Things and
activities that are not directly connected with people (the weather,
taxis, traffic), 5th group: 59% human behavior (cheating, children,
stupidity, rudeness, various activity of the nose and mouth)
๏ Identifying Expressed Emotions
i) Bodily Changes
- The mouth tends to dry, blood vessels to the muscles of
the trunk the arms and legs tend to dilate and muscles to the
digestion area tend to constrict. Stomach activities slows
down or even reverses and that control of the bodily urinary
- The galvanic skin perspiration tends to go up and your
breathing tends to become irregular and heart rate goes up
same with adrenaline
- Not very helpful figuring out which emotion we or
somebody else is happening
ii) Eye Changes
- Positive emotional state our pupils tend to dilate and
negative our pupils tend to constrict
- Eckherd Hess- Had people pick which mother was best
and they chose the left one and din’t know why when it was
because her pupils were bigger and that dilated pupils
usually mean warmth.
- The larger the pupils the younger the person is and the
smaller the pupils the older they are
- large pupils make children more attractive, the older the
person the smaller than the average person
- The aversion constriction hypothesis: if you look at
something you like the pupils will dilate and if you look at
something negative, the pupils will constrict. The evidence
came from the pilot study, where 10 people were tested; 5
people that claimed to be heterosexuals and 5 men that
claimed they were gay. The heterosexuals the nude men
will cause constricted pupils and nude women would cause
them to dilate and that would be the opposite affect for gay
- The darker the iris, the friendlier the people perceived to
iii) Facial Expressions
- The startled response is a universal expression of surprise - People all over the world have the same expressions for
these emotions: sadness, happiness, anger, contempt, fear,
disgust and surprise
- Gary Schwartz had invented facial ectromyography,
where he had electrodes attached to their facial muscles.
The pattern on the changes of the neutral faces are still the
same when the emotion is expressed
- Facial feedback, if you’re feeling crappy or sad, start
smiling and it won’t take too long before you start feeling
iv) Vocalizations and Gestures
- Observe changes in their gestures or bodily posture or
breaks and sobbing in their voice, indicates how the person
- Useful since it shows and vocalizes how they’re currently
- Julius Fast Social distance >12’= public distance, 3’- 12’
= social distance, 18” - 3’personal, 0 - 18” intimate
v) Cultural Background
- The way we express our emotions may be influenced by
the cultural background we’ve grown up in
- Klinegberg (1938)- Check table in Planner
- American students concentrated on the mouth, which is
the most expressive feature on the face. Japanese students
looked at the eyes because it’s a culture that tends to mask
vi) Knowledge of Situation
- The world cup for spain winning
- Children and adults smile and laugh for many reasons,
usually if we’re happy about something or embarrassed or
- Anne Marie Gulmette: Situation: Serious even disastrous,
type of humor: arousal (sick, black, gallows, morgue)
- situation: social unacceptable, type of humor: superiority
- situation: incongruity, type of humor: incongruity (the
- jokes often have the elements of superiority, hostility and
sexuality in them
- Agood story tellers has a good incongruity in there
VI) Psychological Development
a) Maturation and Behavior
- 4 stages: childhood, adolescents, adult and old age
- Maturation the process by which the various parts and characteristics of an
organisms reach full development
- How does maturation connected to behavior; behavior matures. If you have
reached a certain point of maturation, the behavior will appear - You have to be given the opportunity to practice behavior
- Diddoro said that all children are essentially criminals or lunatics
- Behavior matures is the behavior appears when they mature
- readiness to acquire behavior matures and it has to be taken advantage of. Where
the child has to mature enough to learn the behavior and that even though
they’re maturely ready to learn the behavior they aren’t given the opportunity
- ex) Understanding arithmetic, once the cognitive is ready and it’s not