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Psychology 1000

1. Zachary was born with a rare visual defect. He has no cone photoreceptors in his retina, there are only rods. Assuming that all other aspects of his visual system are normal, which of the following would characterize Zachary’s vision? A) poor visual acuity B) an inability to differentiate between black and white. C) a difficulty seeing in low light conditions. D) colour blindness E) both A) and D) 2. Critics of the trichromatic theory of colour vision have indicated that this theory has a major limitation. Which of the following statements MOST accurately reflects this limitation? A) Young and von Helmholtz were incorrect in assuming that cone photoreceptors in our retina are maximally responsive to a specific wavelength of light. B) The trichromatic theory cannot explain the phenomenon of visual after-effects. C) Rod photoreceptors in our retina, not cones, are responsible for the neural coding of colour. D) Research has determined that there are actually six types of cones in the retina, rather than three as proposed by Young and Helmholtz. E) Trichromatic theory cannot explain sensory adaptation. 3. Sam is preparing her boyfriend’s favorite chili, and as specified in the recipe she has used 18 grams of salt. When her boyfriend tastes the chili, he tells Sam that she needs to add more salt. According to “Weber’s Law” what is the minimum amount of salt that Sam needs to add for her boyfriend to notice that she has added more salt? (Note: The last time that Sam made the chili, her boyfriend was able to just notice a difference in the saltiness of the chili when she increased the salt in the recipe from 9 grams to 12 grams). A) 6 grams B) 1 gram C) 9 grams D) 20 grams E) 36 grams 4. Cindy has decided to consult with her optometrist because although she has no problems clearly seeing objects at a distance, she notices that when she tries to read, the print seems blurry and out of focus. After a vision test, her optometrist tells her that the lens in her eye is weak and is focusing the image behind her retina rather than on her retina. Considering these findings, Cindy would most likely be considered to have: A) monochromatic vision B) dichromatic vision. C) myopia D) hyperopia E) astigmatism 5. Dark adaptation A) takes longer for rods B) produces greater sensitivity in the cones than in the rods C) takes longer when moving from an environment of red light to darkness D) is the process by which photoreceptors are depleted of pigment molecules E) only takes 10 minutes for both rods and cones 6. Which of the following is/are considered to be a stimulus for the perception of movement? A) the absolute movement of the stimulus across the retina. B) binocular disparity, in which each eye sees a slightly different image. C) the relative movement of an object in relation to its background. D) the object’s height in the horizontal plane. E) Both A) and C). 7. The area of the tongue that has the highest concentration of receptors that are maximally receptive to sweet substances is A) the tip of the tongue. B) the back of the tongue. C) the sides of the tongue at the back. D) the sides of the tongue half way up the length of the tongue. E) all areas of the tongue about equally. 8. The “Place theory of pitch perception” proposes that A) the location of a sound is coded using time of arrival cues from both ears. B) the specific point on the basilar membrane in the cochlea where the fluid wave peaks and maximally bends the hair cells is used as a frequency cue. C) the number of nerve impulses per second that are sent to the brain match the frequency of the sound. D) the nerve impulses per second that are sent to the brain match the amplitude of the sound waves. E) the location of a sound is coded in the occipital cortex. 9. According to the principles of the “Opponent Process Theory of colour vision”, if you stare at a red square for an extended period of time, and then focus on a blank white screen, you will see A) an after effect of a blue square. B) an after effect of a yellow square C) an after effect of a green square. D) an after effect of a black square. E) nothing but a blank white screen. 10. All of the following are considered to be Gestalt principles except: A) the law of proximity B) the law of similarity C) the law of disparity D) the law of continuity E) the law of closure 11. The part(s) of the middle ear that amplifies the sound waves (more than thirty times) is/are the A) tympanic membrane B) basilar membrane C) organ of corti D) ossicles E) auditory nerve 12. The reason we cannot see things that fall on our blind spot is because A) the cones in that area do not contain photopigments B) there are no receptors in the optic disk C) the image is inverted and reversed D) the lens cannot bend the incoming light rays enough to focus the image E) the pupil cannot dilate enough to allow sufficient light to focus the image on this point of the retina 13. In signal detection theory A) a false alarm is when the stimulus was present and the participant said “absent” B) a miss is when the stimulus was present and the participant said “absent” C) a correct rejection is when the stimulus was present and the participant said “absent” D) a hit is when the stimulus was absent and the participant said “absent” E) none of the above 14. Which of the following is NOT true? A) To fully taste something, one needs the sense of smell. B) Because there are taste buds on the roof and back of the mouth, a person without a tongue could still experience taste. C) The centre of the tongue is a relatively insensitive area with respect to taste. D) The perception of taste results from the stimulation of a particular area on the tongue. E) A taste bud consists of more than one receptor cell. 15. Circadian rhythms can be described as a A) repetition of physiological events such as a heartbeat. B) sequence of brain activity following stimulation. C) monthly behaviour or physiological cycle. D) weekly behaviour or physiological cycle. E) daily behaviour or physiological cycle. 16. Juan is experiencing a sleep disorder. For no reason at all, he suddenly falls into sleep whether it is day or night. If he is standing at the time, he falls down due to loss of muscle tone. EEG recordings indicate that he cycles directly into REM. Most likely, Juan is suffering from A) insomnia B) sleep apnea C) night terrors D) narcolepsy E) REM-sleep behaviour disorder 17. As you go from being alert, to being relaxed, to being asleep, your EEG wave patterns progress from A) alpha waves to beta waves to delta waves B) alpha waves to delta waves to beta waves C) beta waves to alpha waves to delta waves D) beta waves to delta waves to alpha waves E) delta waves to alpha waves to beta waves 18. Sandra returns to her dorm room to find her roommate Anne taking an afternoon nap. Sandra is planning to make a snack and tries to wake Anne to see if she is hungry. Sandra has difficulty awakening Anne and has to call her name several times and touch her shoulder. Anne was most likely in which level of sleep? A) REM B) Stage 1 C) Stage 2 D) Stage 4 E) Theta wave 19. The cognitive theory of dreaming asserts that dreams A) help dissipate problematic aggressive energy. B) allow us to fulfil our true wishes and desires. C) are only the random firing of neural networks. D) are used to review daily events and help us problem solve. E) include both manifest and latent content. 20. Sleepwalking takes place during: A) stage 1 sleep B) stage 2 sleep C) REM sleep D) Stages 1 or 2 of sleep E) Stages 3 or 4 of sleep 21. Antipsychotic medications used to treat schizophrenia act by binding with and blocking dopamine receptor sites, thus reducing the effects of abnormally high levels of this neurotransmitter. Such medications would be classified as A) antigens. B) agonists. C) antagonists. D) inhibitors. E) depressants. 22. It is surprising that alcohol is technically a ________ since most users state that they need a few drinks to Aget the party [email protected] It appears that this reaction actually results from ________ the inhibitory control centres in the brain. A) hallucinogen; exciting B) opiate; depressing C) stimulant; exciting. D) depressant; depressing E) depressant; exciting 23. If a drug changes a bodily function in a certain way, the brain will try to adjust by producing A) slower reactions leading to tolerance. B) faster reactions to avoid withdrawal. C) opposite reactions called compensatory responses. D) opposite reactions called antagonistic responses. E) more enzymes to more quickly break down the chemicals in the blood. 24. According to research, the risk of fatal drug overdose by addicts increases A) when the drug is taken in an unfamiliar setting. B) when the drug is taken in the presence of others. C) when the drug is taken in isolation. D) as physical tolerance increases. E) none of these; the risk of overdose is constantly high with addiction. 25. Which of the following is Tammy NOT likely to do under hypnosis? A) Smell or taste something that is not there. B) Fail to see or hear something that is currently occurring. C) Engage in behaviour that she would find morally and ethically wrong. D) Become more suggestible. E) Regress to an earlier stage of behaviour. 26. Two weeks of final exams filled with stress and too much caffeine has caused you to suffer from the inability to fall asleep, or ______. A) Insomnia B) Nonsomnia C) Narcolepsy D) Somnambulism E) Sleep apnea 27. Following an intense, 4 hour exam, sleep is usually deeper and lasts somewhat longer. This supports the ______ theory of sleep. A) peripheral feedback B) circadian rhythm C) preservation and protection D) restoration E) evolution 28. According to the division of awareness theory of hypnosis, one stream of consciousness responds to the hypnotist’s suggestions, while the other stream A) monitors behaviour while remaining in the background B) ignores behaviour while remaining in the background C) monitors behaviour while not remaining in the background D) ignores behaviour while not remaining in the background E) monitors behaviour while competing with the other stream 29. Four year old Louise injured a small puppy while she was playing with it. Later on when other small children are near the puppy he becomes very upset and barks loudly. This illustrates A) operant conditioning B) extinction C) stimulus generalization D) negative reinforcement E) higher-order conditioning 30. Ralph is attempting to use classical
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