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Psychology 1000
Peter Pada...

Definitions: Critical Period; time period in which exposure to particular kinds of stimulation is required for normal development Sensitive Period: an optimal age range for certain experineces bu if those experince occur at another time, normal development will still be possible Longitudinal Design; research that repeated tests the same cohort as it grows older Sequential Design repeadely testing several age cohorts as they grow older Accomodation: process by which new expeirnce cause existing schemas to change Assimiliation: in cognitive development the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas Senorimotor stage; Birth – 2; Piaget the stage of cognitive development in which children understand their world primarily through sensory experience and physical motor interactions with objects Object Permanence:; the recongition that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen Preoperational Stage; 2-7; Piaget model; stage of cognitive developemnt in which children rpesente th world symbolically thorugh words andoperations or rules mental images but do not yet understand basic mental Conservation: principle that basic properties ob objects such as their mass or quantity stay the same; even though their outward appearance may change Egocentricism; diffculty in view the world from someone elses perspetive Concrete Operational Stage:7-12; I Piagets theory the stage fo cognitive development during which children can preform basic mental operations concerning problems that invovle tangible concreate objects and situations Formal Operational Stage; 12 on'; piaget; periond in which individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both conscetre and abstract problems, form hypotheses and test them in a thoughtful way Zone of Proximal Development: differnce between what a child can do indepednetly and what he can do with assitance from adult or more davanced peer Theory of Mind: belief about the mind and ability to under other peoples mental states Temperament a biologicallybased genral style of reacting emotioanlly and behaviourally to environment Emotional Regulation; the processes by which we evalute and modify our emotional reaction Psychosocial Stages:; sequcne of eight developmental stages proposed by Erikson; which invovles a difference crisis over how we view ourselves Imprinting some species a suddent biologically primed form of attachment Attachment; the strong emotional bond that develops between children and tehir primary caregives Stranger Anixety; distress over contact with strangers that develops in the first year of infancy and disspates in the second year Separation Anxiety;distress experience by infants when they are separated by primary caregiver; peaking at around age 12 – 16 months Strange Situation Test; SST: standarixze procedure for examining infants attachemnt whereby an infants first plays with toys in whis mother presence and then observed in the presence of a stranger Authorotative Parents: care gives who are controlling bu warm, establish and enforce cleare rules within a caring supportive atmosphere Authoritarian Parents: caregivers who exert control over the children do so within a cold unresponsive or rjecting relationship Indulgent Parents; caregives who have warm and caring relationships with their children but do not provide guidance and discipline Neglectful Parents: caregives who provide neither warmth nor rules nor guidance Gender identity; the sense of femalenesso r maleness that is an integral part of our identity; Denger constancy Sex role Stereotypes; beliefs of types of characterisitc and behaviours that are appropriate for byos vs for girls Socialization' process by which we acquire the beliefs values, and behaviours of a group Sex Typing; treating others differently basedo n whether they are a female or male Preventional Moral Reasoning;; in Kholbergs stage model; moral reasoning based on anticipated punishment and reward Conventional Moral Reasoning: mmoral judgement that are based on conformity to social expectations, laws, and duties Postconventional Moral Reasoning: moral judgement are based on system of internalized well thought moral principles Adolescene period of developemtn and gradual transition between childhood and adulthood Adolescent Egocentricsm highly self focused thinking, particularly in earlier teenage years Post formal thought; abnility to reason logically about opposing points to view and to accept c contradictions and irreconcibable differences - Abnormal behaviour; behaviour that is personally distressful, personally dysfunction and or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be innappropriate or maladaptive Anxiety disorders; group of behaviour disorders in which anxiety nad associated maladative behaviours are the core of the disturbance Mood disorders; psychological disorders whose core conition invovle madaltive mood states such as depression and mania Somatoform Disorders disorder in which a person complains of bodily symtpoms that accanot be accounted for interms of actial physical damage or dysfunction Dissociative disorders; disorder which invovle a major dissociation of personal identity or memory Schizoprhenic and other psychotic disorders;' Substance abuse disorders Sexual gender identity disorders Eating disorders; Personality disroders; stable inflexible and madaltive personality styles Realibility; in psychological testing the consistency with which a measure asesses a given characteristic or difference onbserves agree on a given score, the degeree ot which clincians show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions Validity Competency; a legal decision that a defendant is mentally capacble of understand the nature of criminal charges particiapting meaningfully in a trial and consulting with an attorney Insanity; a legal decision that a defenat was so severly impaired at the teim a crime was committed that he or she was incapable of appreciating the wrongfulness of the act or controlling their behaviour Phobias; strong and irrational fears of particular objects or circumstances Agoraphobia; fear around open spaces and public places Social phobias; excessive and inappropriate fear of social sistuation which a person might evaluated and possible embaarassed Specific phobias; irrational and excesive fears of specific objects or sitautions that pose little or no actual threat Panic Disorder; anxiety diosrder characterized by unpreditable panic attacks and percasive fear that another will occur may also include resulting agorphobia Obsessive compulsion disorder; an anxiety disorder that is charaxeterized by persistent and unwanted thoughts nad compulsive behaviours Pbsessions; unwanted and idsturbing thought or image that invades consciousness nad is very difficult to control Compulsions; repeititve act that the personal feels compelled to carry out often in response to an obssessive thought or image Neurotic Anxiety; in psychoanalytic theory a state of anxiety that arises when impulses from the id threaten to break through into behaviour Major dpression' a mood disorder that is charaterized by intense dperession that interferes markedly with functioning/ Dysthemia; depressive mood disorder of moderate intensity that occur over long period of time but does disrupt function as a major depression does Bipolar disorder; mood disorder in which intermittent mania appears against background of depression Mania; state of tintense emotiona and behavioural excitement in which a person feels omptimistic and energized Depressive congitive triad; negative thoughts concenring the world, oneselfm and the future wthat peope with depression cannot contorl or supress Depressiove attributional pattern; tendency of depressed people to attribute negative outcomes to tehir own inadequacies and postive ones to factors outside themselves Learned helplesness thoery; theroy of depression that states that a people are unable to control life events that develop a state of helpessness that leads to depressive symtoms Hypocondriasis; somatoform disorder; an overreaction to physical symptoms and avoniction thato ne has or is on verge of a serious illness Pain disorder; somatoform disorder in which person complains of pain cannot be accounted for in terms of physical damage Conversion disorder; disorder in which serious neurological symptoms such as paralysis loss of sensation or blindness suddenly occuring Dissociative disorders; diorder which invovle major dissocaition of personal identity or memory Psychogenic amnesia; an extenisve but slective meory loss after traumatic event Psychogenic fugue; a dissociative phenomenon in which a person loses all sense of perosnal indentity and may wander to another place and establish a new identity Dissociative identity disorder; dissociative disorder in which two or moe separate identities or personalities coexist within an individual Trauma dissociative theory ;a theory that accounts for the development of dissociation os as fecne agaisnt sever childhood abuse or trauma Schzophrenia; psychotic disorder invovle serious impariment of attention, thought, lagnauge emtion, behaviour Delusions; false beliefs often involving themes of persection or grandeur that are sustained in the face of evidence that normally would be sufficent to destroy them Hallucinations'false perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality Paranoid type; schizophrenic diosrder marked by delusional thnking and susppiciousness Disorganized type; schizoprhenic disorder marked by verbal incoherence, disorded thought processes, disorganized behaviour and inappropriate emotional responses Catatonic type; schizophrenic reaction characeterized by alternating stuporous states, agitated excitement during which the person can be quite dangerous Undifferentiated type; a redituation category of schizophrenia for people who show some of the symptoms of parnoid, disorganized, cataonic types but not enough to be placed in one of those diagnositc categories Type I schszophrenia; substype of schrizophrenia characterized by a predominance of positve sympts Positive symptoms; schizophrenic symtoms sucha as delusion, hallucination, disorderd speech and thinking Type 2 schizophrenia;; subtype; characteirzd by negative symtp Negative symptoms; schizophrenic symptoms that reflect a lakc of normal reactions such as emotions or social behaviours Dopamine hypothesis; view that symptoms of t schizophrenia are produced by overactivity of the dopamine system in the areas of the brain that regulate emotiona lexpression, motivated beaviour and cognitve functioning Regression ; a psychoanalytic defence mechanism in whci h a person retreats back to an earlier stage of development in respnose to stress; Expressed Emotion; famly inteaction pattern invovling crticism, histility, overinvolvement that is associated with relapse when formly hospitalized schizophrenic patients return home Antiosocial personality disorder; disorder invovle behaviour that is interpersonally destructive and metionally harmful and exhibits lack of conscience Borderline personality disorder; BPD: collection of symptoms charaterized primarily by serious instability in behaviour, emotion, identity, and interpersonal relationships Splitting; failure to intergrate postive and negative aspect of anotherr bahviour into a cohernet whole - Free Association; in psychoanalysis the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship Insight; in Gestalty psychology the sudden perception of a useful relationship or a solution to a problem in psuychoanalyssi the conscious awreness of unconscious dynamics that underlie pschological problems Resistance; largely unconscious manoeuvres that protect clietns from dealing with anciety arousing material in therapy Transference ; a psychoanalytical in which a client responds irrationally to athe anlyst as if the latter were an important person from the clients past who plays an important role in the clients dynamic Interpersonal therapy; a form of breif therapy that focuses on a clients interpersonal problems and seeks to develop new interpersonal skills Unconditional Positive Regard; a communicated attitude of total and unconditonal acceptance of another person that conveys the person intrsinc worth Empathy; capacity for experience the same emotional response being exhibited by anohter person; in therapy the ability of therapist to view the world through clients eyes nad to understand the clients emotions Genuiness; the ability of a therapist ot honestly express his or her feelings to a client Self Instructional Training; a congitve coping approach of giving daptive self instructions to onself at crucial phass of the coping process Exposure therapeutic technique designed to extinguish anxiety responses by expsoing clients to anxiety arousing stimuli or stiatuons while preventing escape or avidance through response prevention Response prevention; the prevention of escape or avoidance responses during exposrue to anxiety arousing conditioned stimuli that extinction can occur Flooding; treatment in exposure therapy when a client is expose to real life stimuli Implosion therapy; a treatment in exposure therapy when a client ias asked to imagine scens invovling the stimuli Systematic desentiziation; an attempt to eliminate anxiety by using counterconditionin in which a new reponse that is incompatbile with anxiety is conditioned to the axniety arousing conditoned stimulus Counter conditioning; the process of conditoning an incompatible repsone to particular stimulus to eliminate a maladaptive response; exmaple axiety as occurs in systematic desentiziation Stimulus hierarchy; in systematic desentization, the creation of a series of anaxiety arousing stimuli that are ranked in terms of the amount of anxiety they evoke In vivo desentization; carefully controlled exposure to a heirachy of real life sitations Aversion therapy; pairing of a controlled stimulus that currently evokes a positive but lapative response with an noxious uncontrolled stimulus in an attempt to ocnidtion repulsion towards the controled stimulus Behaviour modifcation; therapeutic procedures based on operant conditioning principles, such as postive reinforcement, operant extinction and punishment Social Skill training; techinque in which aclient learns more effective social behaviour by observing and imitating a skillful model Mindfulness; mental state of awreness, focuss, openess, and acceptance of immediate expericence Accpetance and Commitment Therapy; a therapy that focuses on process of mindfullness as vehicle for change teaches clients to to justice notice, accept and embrace their thoughts and feeling to reduce the anxiety they would ordinarily feel Dialectical Behaviour Therapy'; DBT: a treatment developed specifically for the treatment of borderline personality disorder Human Development:  Cross Cultural Development; our textbook is based onw estern culture; other cultures which actually about 95% of the world whoses development is different exoonmoically, culturally, socially, different way of life than what is focused in the textbook  Cuutre variation over human development  Cross Culture approach should be used Studying Development  Lifespan as gains or losses  Normaitve investigations; understand the characteristics and specific age or development  Average levels vs the norm, chronological and developmental age  What should someones skill look like in comparison to others o Chrnological and development age; normative comparison o Need for support vs categorization  Longitudinal Design o Repeated observation, testing of the sample people over time; short term or long them o Study them longer term o Age reated changes cannot be confused with variations differenc societal circumstances o It is costly, time consuming, where is the data only one group  Cross Sectional o Group of participant of difference chronological ages are observed and compared at the same time, a one time looking at different people o More groups can be studied o Political and societal variables may confound the results; many confounding variables for results Development Psychology;  Area of psychology concerned with changes in physical and psychological function o From conception across life span  Development is more or less predicable changes in behaviour associated with age  Stages in Life Span Development o Prenatal ; Conception to Birth o Infancy; Birth Full term to about 18 months o Early Childhood; 18 months- 6 years o Middle Childhood; 6-11 o Adolescne; 11-20 o Early Adulthood; 20-40 o Middle Adulthood- 40-65 o Late = 65 and older Variations in development: is more or less predictable changes in behaviour with change  Stage model; when a perso must pass trhough many subcomponents before passing on to the next stage; if you do not fulfill the require stages you do not progress forward o Norm of children to be variable in their development  Discontinuity means; mean you go and stop, you go and stop, get to one level and then you move on; it is the rule of development o Oarent make important decision when raising children which impacts development Stage Theories of Development  Stages; series of abrupt changes from one period to another; o All childrens must pass through In same order  Continuity; is focused on qualititative; gradually developing;  Not completely reliable because people move and flux between stages; contiously development, continuously in motion Nature vs Nurture:  Nature; development changes are controlled by biological factors  Nurture; development is molded by our experiences, our psychological development Early experiences  Experience occurring in early development believed to have lasting effect  Critical Period; a biological determined period in the life of sme animal dur which certain forms of learning can take place mot easily Developmental psychology examines changes in our biological, psychological, physical and behavioural processes as we age • 4 broad issues that guide developmental psych 1) Nature vs. Nurture (product of environment or hereditary) 2) Critical & sensitive periods (critical period is an age range when certain experiences must occur for you to be normal) (sensitive period is an age range for certain experiences but if they were to occur at a later time it would be normal) 3) Continuity vs. discontinuity (continuity says that people progress gradually and discontinuity says that people go through distinct stages) 4) Stability vs. change (do our characteristics remain constant as we age?) • The 5 figures of development a) No change (a straight line) b) Continuous change continuity (an upwards curved line) c) Stages Discontinuity (a stair case model) d) Inverted U-shape (we grow, peak and then descend with age) e) U-shape (ability that leaves after birth and comes back at old age) (stepping with support) Cognitive Development: the study of process and product of the mind as they merge and change over time  John Locke; Tabula Rase; experience shapes development  Jean Jacque Rousseau; the nativist view; infants enter the world with learned knowleight through evolutionary history which shapes development  Brain need to be developed before we understand problem solving Jean Piaget; Stage Model: believed in the representation(how someone thinks about problems vs the amunt of problems you can solve) of reality change at different stages; need for adaption  Mental structures enable individuals to interpret the world called. Simmiliar representsations way of solving a problem which is dependent schemas;  Relied on observation research; watching children and listening to them reason asthey tried to solve problems o Childrens thinking changes qualititatively with age; differs from the way adults think o Cognitive development = interplay of maturation and experience; view children as natural born scientist; explore and seek to understand their world o TO ACHIEVE this understanding; the brain builds SCHEMAS ( SCHEMATA) which are organized patterns of thoughts, actions;  Internal frame work that guides our intraction with the world  With cogntive development we acquire new schemas; our existing schemas become more complex; Two processes of are invovled; o Assimiliation: modifies new environment infronmental information to fit into what is already known; //process / interpret by which new experience are incorporated in to existing schemass, o Accomodation; restructuring or modifies the childs existing schemes so that new information is accounted for; how to replace existing mental set; // process by which new experience cause existing schemas to change; • Imbalance of disequilibrium between existing schemas; and new experience force schemas to change Cogntive developemnt; give and take of new experiences, assimilate or modify thinking Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor; birth -2, ; uses sense and motor skills, items known by use, object permance  Develop sense of motion  Sensation and perception aware and develp depending on stimuli that is going in their life  Motion and mobility; lack of mobility o Moibility always for knowledge acquisition; best way to learn for them is their mouth and finger tips  What is around in the immediate evnionrment; changes the child, different satiosn that go on continue from birth to well after  Object permance; understand that object exist independent from awaress around two; objects still exist even if we cant see it  understand world through sensory experience, and physical motor interactions with objects; reflexes are earliest schemas that guide thought and and action,  But as sensory / motor skills develop; children will realized they can make thing happens  Infants (6 months) if you hide something, they will not search for it, "out of sight, out of mind"  Around 8 months; if you hide something, they search/retrieve it; concept of object permanence; the undestanding that na object continues to exist even when it not longer can be seen  Language is acquires after 1, towards send of sensorimoter period; use words to rep objects, needs, actions  In these two years ; infant grown into thinkers who can plan, form simple concept, solve some problems mentally and communicate their thoughts Preoperation Stage; 2; 2 years to 7; symbolic thinking, language used egocentric thinking, imagination, experience gro, child de centers  Use of symbols, lanague, matures, memory develops  Role playing increase, imagination increases o Important milestole; play with imaginary firend  Difficult to undertand mass conversation  Egocentricism; inability to take other person perspective because you are wrapped in wrapped up in someone elses perspective  Centration tendency for attention to be captured by perceptually striking features of objects ; represent the wrold sybolically through words, metnal images, but do not understand basic mental operations or rules;  Rapid language developemt helps children label objects, represent simple concepts ; things as same or different, think about time; past or future, and anticipate consequence of actions  Symbolic thinking = make believe pretend play  Cogntive abilitties; limitations; conservation; that basic properties fo object such as their volume,mass quantity stay the same are conserved; even though outward appearance change o Children face irriversibility; difficult to reverse an action mentally  Preop chilren; exhibit centration;they focus on the centre on only one aspect of the situation;  Thinking reflects; egocentrism; difficulty in viewing the world from some else's perspetive; not selfish; but believe others percieve the world from the same perspective Concrete Operational Stage: 7-12; logic applied, objective rational inteprreatation, conversation, numbers, ideas, classifications  Conversation; physical properties obobjects don’t change even though might; reversitbility basic mental operations concerning problems involving tangible objects and situations; grasped concept of reversibility; less centrations amd easily solved consevation problems.  Learned serial order; arranging set of object along various dimensions; formed mental representation of series of actions  Difficulties with hypothetical problems, problems with abstract reasoning; rigid thinking Formal Operational Stage; thinks abstractly, hypothetical ideas etihics, politics, social moral issues explored  Development of hypothetical and abstract thinking, consideres series of alternative logical thinking  Abstract thinking, comes at this time or after this time  Sees others perspective, the social becomes important  Try ing to understand others peoples thinking, perspective, beliefs  Flaw; stage is too long ; individual thinking logically about contrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses, systematically test them; 11- 12 and increase through adoloscene  Thinkin more flexibly, when tackling hypothetical problems; brainteaser, enjoy the challenge; Assessment of Piagets Theory Piaget's universality principle; she presented a universal thoery of cogntive development;  Shaffer supports that general cogntive abilities with the 4 stages occur in the same stages across cultures;  Flaw; culture influences cogntive development; she cofused on western perspective that equivliated cogntive development with logical thinking where many cultures invovle thinking skills with successful interpersonal contexts Early Understand of physical World; children appear to acquire many concepts at an ealier age than piaget proposed; because ifants cannot express their knowledge in words, developmental psych created some ingenious approache such as violation of expectation experiemnt; to examine infants understanding of basic concepts  Infant visiual attention; to possible and impossible events is measured after they watched a physical event which sets up expetacy Complexity of Stages: is more variable and complex than piaget proposed  Test performance is affected by many variables, less conservation errors and egocentric thinking when they are tested on task that are more familiar to them than taks that depend less on language than thetask invented by Piaget  Her cognitive development stages proceed incosistently; child may perform some taks on preop stage and some on concrete operation stage; the debate of continuity and discopnontinuity; o If development process qualitatively in distinct stages, then a given stage should now show large inconsistencies in solving conceptually similar task  Comntemporary Cognitive Views: Renee Baillagreon and infant cognitions;  Demonstrated that some aspects of piagets stages model do not occur in order; object permances created a simplistic way of measures a child’s cognitive development  Rudimentary understanding that they know things do not fit, indirect course of action, object permance, violation of expectations = rudimentary of ower level of object permances happes at a young age o We know the reaction from children that specific pieces doest fit; 4-5 months Theory of Mind: Children's Understanding of Mental States:  Framework for intial understanding called foundational theories; accumulation of experiences; o Understand cognitive experience from someone elses perspective can happens from 6-7  TOM; refers to person's belief about the mind and the ability to undertand other peoples mental states o Adults assume mind conssits of various menta states, like knowledge ,feeling,desires, intentions ' = persons's action, use these assumptions to predict behaviouir  Piaget believe children 6-7 younger, troubles recognizing what other people are thinking  Lying and Deception; reflect TOM; False belief understanding are more likely to lie start as early as 3, o Common misconception is that young children cannot tell eleaborate lies, however when they try to elaborate on their intial lies their lying becomes more detectable  Perpsetive taking and Early Word Learning o Infants begin to make inferences about an adults perspetive, knowledge, intentions in early life, o Joint visual attention skills set the stage for infants understand of adults referential intent when they look at or label object o APPEARS children understand several aspects of other peoples thinking by 3-4 way before Piaget suggested Les Vegotsky: the social context of Cogntive development; understand information by learning from someone else  Internalization  Process ofabosrbing knowledge from the social and cultural contrext has a major impact on how cognition unflds; over time  Piaget; acknowledged social factors influence thinking; he focused ON independent exploration of physical word;  Leve vygotsky; sociocultural context interacts with the brains biological maturation;  Zone of proximal development; difference between what child can independly do and what child can do with assitance from adults or more advanced peers o Helsp us recognized what children be able to do themselves, o People can help move a childs cogntive development forward within limits, by bio maturation Adult Cognitive Development  Intelligence o Fluid Intelligence show greate decline with age, decrease in processing speed  Abstract thinking, adaptability, anayze, info visual processing, peak at 25, decline, more impacted with age o Crystal; accumulated knowledge, brain size decrease, making connection of information in rgard to brain physiology; changes over time gradialu incline o Environmental stimulation can maintain high levels of cgnoitive abilities o Age related gains; = wisdom; expertise in fundamental practices of life Intellectual Changes in Adulthood: IQ differs in different age groups,  Fluid intelligence; declines in early adulthood,  Crystalized peaked during middle adulthood, decline late adulthood  Age related intellectual decline are partly due to poorer percetualy speed, memory, vision  Bigger decline when test questions require fast responses in older people vs ample of time to respond  75-89 longer to acquire computer skills , need more assitance than 60-74; key is to retain intellectua cpacity to learn Information Processing Approaches: contracst to Piagets stage; many research view cogntive development as a continuous, gradual process where same infoprocessing abilities become more efficient  Information Search Strategies: o Old children can be better able to search systematically for relevant information  Processing Speed Attention and Response Inhibition o Rober Kail; speeed which children process information become faster with age o Speed improve continously, rleatively rapid rate from 8-12 during adolescenee o Childrens attention span and ability to inhibit impulsive responses to distracting stimuli also improvesw with age o Performing tasks; older children better focus their attention on relevant details , ignore irrelevant, preschoolers have problem with cogntive flexibility and selective attention  Working Memory and Long Term; improve with age; store more of information in working memory, and repeat more information they read than younger childrne o Retain and manipulate visuospatial information in working memory more effectively than younger children] better mental rotation tasks; draw map to friends house, (few turns away) o Older children, more likely to use strategies to improve memory; o Older children can call on a larger library of information stored in long term memory to solve problems or perform taks  Continuity vs Discontinuity: continous growth in working memory, task specific knowledgem computation favcility, major shift in reasoning ability to advance through Piagets stages, more minor shifts Adult COngitive Development  Memory; age related decline in memory; primarily affects the cncoding, storage, retrieval of new information o Possible self fulfilling effect of believe your memory will be poor  Denegal memory lass difference from development of alheimers disease Information Processing and Memory: decline in aulthood, but the age can vary when they start  Perceptual speed; starts to decline in early childhood; 20s, as adults gorw older; it takes them longer to visually identify and evaluate stimuli;  Memory for new factual information; harder to remember new series of number, names, faces of new people, new maps, by late 30s worsens for women then steadily declines after 50 o Verbal memory slowly dclines with age,  Spatial memory declines with age; constant in adulthood, decline in 60  Recall; declines more strongly than recognition; because recall requires more processing resources  Propsetivc memory; ability to remember to perform some action in the future are less clear Social Development:  How social interation and expectations change over time  Concluasions based on the averafe life course, but development not indepednt from cultural and environmental aspects Erickson's Psychosoical Thoery: personality develops through confront a series of eight major psychosocial stages; invovle a different crisis; conflict; over how we view ourselves in relation to other people and the world  1. Basic trust vs basic mistrust: Stage 1; Oral Snsory; Birth to 1 o how adequate our needs are met; how much love / attention we receive in 1st year of life; develop trust / mistrust of the world; basic sense of safety o Feed important event; sense of trust ; is the caregive is responsive consistent with basic need being met o Need for care and food met with regular comforting regularity o Mistrust due less cooperative, more aggressive mothers, = less competency, sympathetic with peers, insecurity and anxiety  2. Autonomy vs shame and doubt; Muscular Anal; during the next 2 years; 1-2; self confidence and self control, perception of self as agency capable of controlling own body and making things happen; o Toilet training; also feed themsleces, dress themselve,s how they strieve for authonomy ; o Essential parents don’t be over protective ,as it will influence the childs ability towards autonomy, if apents are not reinforcing it will make the child shameful, doubt is or her abilities o children exercise their individuality; harsh demands and restrictions by parents children develop shame and doubt about their abilities, later lack indepedence or courage to it  3. Initiative vs. Guilt; 2-6; Locomotor; independence; self conception, confidence, self worth, increase in wt hat is important reserve judgement for the young children, allow them to contine their self development; o Inative; , eager for responsibility, and adults must confirm that childs initiative is accepted no matter how small it may be o Children may develop guilt if they are not given responsibility; may believe what they want to do is always wrong o Lack of self worth o great curiosity; freedom to explor receive answer to question, sense of iniatitve; held back or punished they develop guilt about their desires and suppress their curosity  4. Industry vs inferiority; 6- 12 puberty; latency; competence vs inferiority; adequacy in basic social and intellectual skills o Pleasure in being product between the world at home and ned to succeed, friends and neighborhood becomes increasingly important o expanion into school, peer activites; experience pride and encourage = master taking devlop industry; striving to achieve repeated fialur, lack of praise = leads to sense of inferiority - FLAW: lacks detail, question its stage approach  5. Adolescenes: Identity vs Role Confusion; 12-18 comfortable sense of self as aperson; o Search for an identity that will lead to adulthood,  Understand who they are, gets them ready for adult hood  6. Intimacy vs isolation;19-40 Early Adulthood; Young Adulthood; capcity for closeness and commitment t another o Love relationshisp; care for others in society, legacy, how am I going to leave this life difference than I came in, giving back others, o Feeling of alonielessness, separation , deneial of need for closeness,  7. Middle Adult hod; Generativity vs Stagnation; 40-60; focus of concern beyond onself to family, society, future oreitnation, o Adults abilityto care and guide the next generation, o Satisfy and support the next generation, o Nurture children  8. Late Adulthood; Integrity vs Despiar; reflection and acceptance of ones life, sene of wholeness, basic satisifcation o Negative outcome; nale to feel fulfillment, completeness = despair and fear death Socilization:  Life long process through which an individuals behaviour patterns, values, standards, sklls attitudes, motives are shaped to coform those regarded as desirable in particular society  Process involves people but family is important in basic responsiveness basic respnosivness ot others Social Emotional and Personality Development  Children's develop emotion and develop personality; distinct, yet consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, behaving, Early Emotions and Emotion Regulations  Emotional responses – show inner states ot others, influence how others respond to us  Infants can't describe their feelings, illustrate that their expression, vocalization, other behaviour provide a window into their emotional lives; e.g; cry – distress, gazing – interest, o 6 month; infant shows joy, and disgust, anger, fear and sadness o 18; infants; self on self, recognize themselves in a mirror; growing self awareness set stage for envy, embarrassment, empath to emergy o After 2; perfmance standards rules; to follow;, pride, shame; avoiding eye contact, shrugging shoulders, facial expressions  Emotion regulation; more diverse with age, evalute and modify reactions with age; instead of sucking thumb, now children might talk about it  Emotional expressiveness and ability to regulate their emotion become part of their over emotional competence; influences their social behaviour, how well peers like them or others like them  Sad emotions, lack of control of anger = less popular, competence = important for wellbeing as children development o Socialization influences emotional development; adults reinforce some emotional response but not others Temperament: infants differ in it;  Biolgoically based levels of emotional and behavioural response to th environment  Jerome and Kagan and sensitivity to physical an social stimulation o Inhibited and uninhibited baies  Set stafe of later aspects of development and can have interactive effects  J o Biologically based style of reacting emotioning, behaviourally to the environment; o Some infants ; happy or other irritable; o People different in temperament; o Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess; three groups of children; Easy, Difficult, Slow-to-warm-up  Easy; ate, slept on time, playful, accepted new situations with little fuss  Difficult:irritable, fussy eaters, sleepers, reacted negatively to new situations; develop emotional probs  Slow to warm uptp; least active, midly negative respones to new situations, slowly adapted over time o Shyness; more general temperamnet; behaviour inhibition;  Quiet and timid ifnats; cry, withdraw when exposed to unfamiliar people,places, objects, sounds  Uninhibited; socialble, verbal, spontaneous o Adults classified as undercontrolled at 3, were antiosocial o Welladjusted 3 ; had more relationships than inhibited oneds; o Temperament; classification depend on context; level of environmental distress, and observers; parents or trained observers; Attachment:  Attachment refers to strong emotional bond the develops between children and primrary caregivers o Humans do not automatically impront on a caregiver; not immediate post birth critical period; o Few yearso f life= sensitive period when we most easily form secure bonds with caregivers; that enhance our adjustmnet later in life  Some species experience imprinting o f the first moving objext they see Konrad Lorenz; ; Imprinting; a sudden biological primed form of attachement,  Imprinting involves a critical period; offersprings must be exposed to parents wtihin hours, after entering the world to attach to them  Attachment Process: o Harry Harlow; contant comfort; body contact with a comforting object is more impoortant fostering a attachment than is the provision of nourishment  John Bowlby: humans biological predisposed to forms attachment, o Attachment forms lifelong schemals for relationship called internal working model o attachment in three phases  Indiscriminate attachment; newborns crys, vocalize, smile; emit these behaviour to everyone, evoke caregiving from adults  Discriminate attachment; 3 months of age; infants direct their attachment more toward familiar caregivers than toward strangers  Specific attachment; 7-8 month age develop first meaningful attachment to specific caregivers; secure abse from which infant crawl about and explore environment • Infants attachment becomes more focuses 2 types of anxieties can occur o Stranger Anxiety; distress over contact with unfamiliar people; 6-7 moth – end 18 month, when approached by , touched by, handed over to a stranger, infant becomes afraid, cries, reaches for caregiver o Separtion anxiety; distress from seperation from primary caregiven; begins little later; 12-16 months – 2 years/3, o Invert U shape age function; both forms of anxiety show a similar pattern across many cultures • Age when infant master water; fear of strangers, separtion prevent them from wandering beyond the sight of their caretakes; • 3-4 age; cognitive skills and verbal skill gorwn; better understanding of attachment relations; stage of goal corrected partnership emerges; children and caregivers describe their feeling to each other, maintain their relationship whether they are togther or apart Types of attachment: infants develop diffent types of attachments with their caretakers  Mary Ainswoorth; SST; Strange Situation Test: standardized procedure for examining infant attachment; o Securely attached infants; explore the playroom and reactively postivie to sttrangers with mothers presen  Distress when she leaves, happy to greet her when she returnse, o Two types of insecurely attached infants:  anxious resistant infants; fearful when mother is present, demand her attention, highly distress when she leaves, not soothed when she returns, angrily resist her attempts at contact  Anxious avoidant infants; show few signs of attachment; seldfom cry when mother leaves, don’t seek contact when return o Three types of attachment style,  Secure, ; 70%  Insecure avoidant; 20%  Inseucir ambient resistant; 10% Contact and Socialbonding; Attachment Deprivation: how young children depreived of stable attachment with caregiver fare in long run  Human depreivation linked to physical and social deficits  Harry Halow; raised without attachment to real, interactive caregiver; social impairments  Isolate monkey and children: o Wild Bo; Averyond; lived in Foresh for 12 years; had limited recovery; after intensive remdial training o Twin boys; 7; were able to become socially happy, attached  Harlow; attributes being socially secure after attachment deprivation to new younger companions to socialize with Orphanges: Infancy is senstive period in which intial attachment to caregives form most easily, and faciliates subsequent development;  Prolonged attachment depreivation = developmental risk, when deprieve children placed in nurturing environment at young age; they can become attached;  Unfavourable envrionments impair development; exposure to extreme adversity are highly resilent and thrieve in later life Daycare Controversy:  Attachment; stranger stiatuion procedure; high quality child care did not seem to disrupt infants or very young childrens attachment to their poarents, even when they attendded for many hours  Several negative factors combined the child care was poor, the child spend many hours there; parents were not sensitive to the childs at home; risk of insecure attachment was increase o Social behaviour: no difference who had been raised exclusive by mother vs child care;  More children care problems at age at 4 with behaviour problem by stopped by grade 3 o Cogntive performance;  Among children in child; exposure to higher quality care was assoicated with better cognitive perofrmance Styles of Parenting and Practises  Parenting Styles range on dimension of demandingness, and responsiveness  Parents have different socialization goals for their children which determin parenting practices  Three Parenting Styles  Authoritarian; high expected maturity and communication parent-child, child parent communication is low, strict discipline, low warth  Permissive; low expected maturity and communication parent-child, child parent communication is high, rare discipline, low high  Authoritiative; moderate expected maturity, communication parent-child and child parent communication is high, moderate discipline, high warth  Diana and Baumrind; 2 dimensions of parental behaviour; warthm vs hostility; o Warm paretnes communicate love and caring for the childre, respond with greater sensitivity, emptahty to the child's feelings o Hostile paretns; express rjection, behave as if they did not care about the child  2nd dimension; restrictive vs permissive; extent which parents make and enforce rules, place demands on children, discipline, COMBO of all styles – different patterns of child development  Authoritative parrents; controlling but warm, clear rules, consistently enforce them, reward childrens compliance; with warth, and affection, o High expectations; caring, support, most postive childhood outcomes = higher self esteem, higher achievers, in school, fewer conduct problems,  Authoritarian: exert control, over their children, do so within a cold unresponsive manner, or rejecting relationship, lower self esteem of children, less popular with peer, perofrm poor in school,  Indulgent parents; warm, caring relationmship with their children, no guidance, and discipline that helps children learn respnosibility, concern for others, chilren ten dto be more immature and self centered  Neglectful aprents; neither warm or rules, guidance; insecurely attached, low achievement motivation, disturbed relationship with peer, and adults at school, impulsive, aggressive  MOST NEGATIVE DEVELOPMENTAL OUtcomes Bidirection Influences:  Parent and child influences are bidirectional once again illustration the interaction of biology and the environment in shaping behaviour;  Bidirection influence; children biologically more irritable = most emotionally cooler, less responsive to the children parents; harder and less warm parenting behaviour = further promotes the childs difficult behaviour  The way child turn out depends on heredity, peer, community influences, other experiences, interaction among these factors  Parenting style alter the path of children at risk of teenage delinquency Sex and Gender Differences Sex Differences:  Biologically based characteristics that distinguish males and females  Production of testosterone and brain differences Gender:  PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENON referring to learned sex related behaviours and attitudes  Involes one gender identity and gender roles  Maccoby argues that parental and peer relations important in gendered behaviour Gender Identity and Socialization: parents help develop gender Identity; femaleness, maleness;become central to their personal identity;  Poulin Dubois; gender constancy; which is understanding that being male or female is permanent part of a person, develops around 6-7  As gender identity develops , children acquire sec role stereotypes; beliefs about the types of characteristics and bebahviours approirate for boys and girls to possess;  Socialization; process by which we acquire the bliefs, vlaues, behaviour of a group play a key role in shaping our gender identity and sec role steretypes o Through socialization we internalize, norm, expectation, standard, and become part of identity,  Sex typing: treating others different based of their sex; from infancy boy/girls are view and treated differently, more verbal prohibition with sons than with their daughter, steer sons away from female acts  Daniel Paquette; mothers play comforting role in times of stres; father encourage their children; to take risk, explore their environment, more lee way to better explore, risk take environmnet  Sex steroptyping: transmitted through oberservation learning and operant conditioning; o Children observe others, and emulate; in ways others approvals reinforce our behaviour whe we meet expectations, and don't when we do not meet them  Beloning with one gender, identifying object that represent a masculine or feminine stereotype  Steroptypes in place; children believe that boys and girls posess different personality traits and hold differnet jobs; as adult o With age; become more flexible thinking about gender; androgynou gender identity; when person is both assertive and compassionte during the remaining highschool years; some adolescent maintain this view Moral Development: right from wrong: children moral thinking change as they grow older???  Morality; system of beliefs, values, underlying judgements about the rightness or wrongness of human acts KohlBerg;s Stage Model: Lawrence Kohlberg; theory of moral reasoning; shaped by Piaget, changing importance of consequences of actions and intentions  More dilemmas used to evaluate reasons for moral decisions  Certain age groups and how they wil perceieve moral dilemmas  Anlyuzed response to various moral dilemmas and cocnluded that there are three main levels of moral reasoings; with two substages within each level  Precoventional Moral reason; anticipated punishments or rewards; o Stage 1; pleasure pain; orientation; reason for moral behaviour to avoid pain or not get caught  Children; steal the drug because he will get punished if his wife dies o Stage 2; cost benefit of orientation, reciprocity an eye for an eye; to get rewards  morality is judged by anticipated rewards doing what is in the person's own interest;  Conventional Moral Reasoning: conformity to social expectations, laws, duties o Stage 3; gold child orientation; to gain acceptance and avoid disproval  desire to gain people's approval; o Stage 4; law and order orientation; to follow rules, avoid censure by authorities  children believe that laws and duties must be obeyed because rule are meant to followed  Postconventional Moral Reasoning; based on well thought out moral principles o Stage 5; Social Contract orientation; to promote societys welfare  importance of societal laws; taking individuals rights into account; o Stage 6: Ethical Principle oreitnation; to achieve justice and avoid self condemnation  morality based on abstract, ethical principles of justice that are viewed as universal; life comes before financial gain, o Stage 7; Cosmic Oreintation; to be true to universal principles and feel oneself part of cosmic direction that trasnscend social norms  Reasoning depends on gotive maturation, opportunities to confront moral issues, with someone at higher stage of development Moral Development; four principles in Kohlbergs model 1. Individual can be at oly one stage at a given time 2. Everyone goes through the stages in ta fixed order 3. Each stage is more comprehensive and complex than the proceeding 4. The same stage occurs in every culture Culture Gender Moral Reasoning:  Childhood through adolscence moral reasoning changes from pre to con, o In adolescene; postcon is uncommin o Moral judgement do not always reflect same level or stages within levels  Critique of Kohlbergs; Western Cultural Bias; Fairness and justice are Kohlbergs post conventional ideas; many cultures do not focus on principles that do not fit easily into Kohlbergs model; such as respect for all animal life, collective harmony, respect for elderly Gender and Morality :  Carol Gillfan; argued that men and women approach more dilemmas in different ways; o Femalses= based on caring for othes, maintain harmony in social relations o Males; based on standard of justice, importantance of fairness o Kohlberg's emphasis on justice = male bias; high level moral reasoning can be based on values other than justice; like care and responsibility for others  Cross cultural research suggest that moral judgement don’t follow universal stages of standards Moral Behaviour and Conscience:  Moral behaviour = moral reasoning ; BF Skinner; good/bad based on reinforcment and punishment; conform to culture moral standard children must understand there are moral rules; be able to control their impulse to engage in forbidden behaviour, experience negative emotions when they use violate these rules  By 2; children understand there are rules for behaviour, emotional expression suggest that they experience guilt when break a known rule; o Ability to stop themselves from engaging in forbidden behaviour develops slowly, this internal regulatory mechanisim : CONSCIENCE ; tends to restriain indivdaul from acting in destructive or antisocial ways twhen they are not being monitored by parents or other o Freud: science by identifying with their parents;  Others: acknowledge that internalizing the societal values trasmitted by parents or other caretakers provides the basis of moral conscience, interalize parental values, postive relationship with them, when parents establish clear rules, provide explanations that faciliate choldrens awareness of parental values  Fearful inhibited children interalize parental values more easily at an earlier age; than less fearful  Secure attachment with parents = motivate fearless children to interalize their parent's standards Neuroscience of Moral Judgement:  Marc Hauser: innate intuitive neural mechanism a moral grammer; evovled to allow humans to make rapid decisions about which actions are right and which are wrong; moral instiction could be more important in what shapes our moral decisiosn and actions in emotionally stressful stiautions o Prefrontal cortex; invovled in some aspect of moral decisions making; patients with damage in the area make abnormal decisions; Adolscence and Adulthood  Sunrise dance; rite of passage that mark a transition from childhood into adulthood status;  Alice Schlegel, and Herbert Barry; o Transition period between childhood and adulthood; brief, not marked by a special term analogus to adolsecne o Adolscene differ from puberty; a period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes a cpable of sexual reproduction; these developemt periods overlapt, but puberty is biologically defined period, where asolcenece is abroder social construction  Puberty aspect of adolescne; is sol ushered in and out by changes in thinking, societal expectation  Physical Development  Puberty: body changes; as the brains hypthalmus signal the pituatary gland to increase its hormonal secretion, stimulates other glands, speeding up maturation of the primary sex characteristics; sex organs  Secondary sex characters; breast in girls, facial hair in boy o Puberty mark in girls is first period 11-13; menarche; boys; it is first ejaculation/ sperm, 12-14  Physical changes have psychological consequences; hormones affect moood, behaviour, reactions to puberty are also influenced by whetrher it occurs early or late o Early = fewer negative outcomes for boys than girls, o For girls early = sexual and social pressure; feel more self conscious, develop disorder, depression, anxiety Adolscent Brain: all brain gorwth slows from late childhood to adolescence;  Brain is still in a flux; establish new neural connection, losing massive number overabundent synaptic connection formed during earlier years of explosive brain forwth; permits more efficient communication between brain regions  Neural restructring; prefront cortex, and limbic system; role in plaing and cordination behaviour that stiasfy motivation goals; emotional urges, moral decisions, o Upsurge in activit of dopamine, neurotrasmitters invovled in regulating emotionnal arousla, pleasure, reward, learning Physical Development:  Young adults peak; macimum muslce strenght in the legs, arms, other parts of body is reached at 25-30, vision hearing, reaction time, coordination aare at peak levels in the early to mid 20ss, decline in mid 30  Physical status; declines at mid life; developmental function for various aspect of vision, show decline with age,  With age muscles become weakker, stiffer, especially among sedentary people, after 040, the basal metabolic rate; slows and produces tedncy to gain weight  Efficient of oxygen consumption decreases and iti s harder for middle aged adults t o amintain the physical enduraNce needed tfor sustained exercise;  50 women lose fetlitly, stop producing estrogen, menopause,, mens fertility gradual declines in middle age Adult Brain: brain declines later in adulthood; lose tissue at a rate of 5.4 percent per year in brain regions, health people has less tissue loss than who experience health proble Adlescent Social Development  G.Stanley Hall and the Storm and Stress theory o Tumultuous period of life characterized by extreme mood swings nad unpredictable and difficult behaviours  Some argued this was not releveant to non western cultures; mead benedict  Erikson concept of Cris and Identity  Peer relations are highly formative, friendships cliques,crowds  Positive and negative influences; risktaking  Adolescent Egocentricism o The quality of thinking that leads some adolescen to believe they are focus of attention in social situations to believe that ehir problems are unique to usually hypocritical and asaid to be pseudostupid Cognitive development: changes during adolscene;  Adolescent egocentricism; self absorbed; distred view of one's uniqueness, important, propes that adolescne egocentricism has two main parts, o Overestimate the uniqueness of their feelings and experiences,; personal fable o Feeling that they are always on stage, attention, mnotice is on them oversensitive to social evaluation; imaginary aduience o
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