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Psych1000 December Exam Review

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 5 Keywords Synesthesia – A condition where sensory stimuli are experienced not only in the normal sensory modality, but in others as well. “A mix of the senses” (experiencing sounds as colours for example) Sensation – The stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Perception – Making “sense” of what our senses tell us – the active process of organizing this stimulus input and giving it meaning Transduction – the process whereby the characteristics of a stimulus are converted into nerve impulses Psychophysics – The study of the relations between the physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory capabilities. Concerned with the absolute limits of sensitivity and the differences between stimuli Absolute Threshold – The lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected correctly 50% of the time (thus the lower the absolute threshold the greater the sensitivity) Decision Criterion – A standard of how certain one must be that a stimulus is present before they will say they detected it. This can vary (influenced by fatigue, expectations etc.) Signal Detection Theory – A theory that assumes that stimulus detection is not based on a fixed absolute threshold but rather is affected by rewards, punishments, expectations and motivational factors - concerned with the factors that influence sensory judgments. Difference Threshold – The smallest difference between 2 stimuli that people can perceive 50% of the time. Sometimes called the ‘just noticeable difference’ - Weber’s Law – States that difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being made and can be expressed as a Weber Fraction Sensory Adaptation – Sensory neurons are sensitive to a change in stimulus. Sensory adaptation is when sensory neurons decrease neural activity in response to a constant stimulus as they habituate to it. The Human Eye - Cornea – Light enters the eye through the cornea - Lens – An elastic structure behind the pupil that becomes thinner to see items that are far away and thicker to see items up close. Reverses image from right to left and top to bottom when it is projected on the retina, but the brain reconstructs the visual input into the image that we perceive. o Myopia (or nearsightedness) – Can see up close but not far away. Caused by the lens focusing the visual image in front of the retina (too near the lens). Generally caused by the eyeball being too long (front to back) than normal o Hyperopia (or farsightedness) – Can see far away but not up close. Caused by the lens not thickening enough and the image is therefore focused on a point behind the retina (too far from the lens). Occurs as eyeball shortens (happens with age) - Retina – A light-sensitive multilayered tissue at the back of the fluid filled eyeball. Contains specialized sensory neurons and is actually an extension of the brain. Contains two types of light-sensitive receptor cells: o Rods – Black and white brightness receptors, function best in dim-light, 500X more sensitive than cones (nocturnal animals have only rods). Day+night creatures (humans) = Rods are found everywhere except the fovea o Cones – Colour receptors, function best in bright light (daytime creatures like chipmunks only have cones, very poor night vision). ). Day+night creatures (humans) = Cones decrease in concentration as one moves away from the centre of the retina. o Fovea – Small area in the centre of the retina that contains only cones. - Bipolar cells – The second layer of retinal cells, have synaptic connections with rods and cones and synapse with a layer of about one million ganglion cells - Ganglion cells – The third layer of retinal cells - axons are collected into a bundle to form the optic nerve - Optic nerve – A bundle of ganglion cell axons in the retina that transmits visual information to the brain. It exits through the back of the eye producing a blind spot (no photoreceptors). Blind spot usually filled in by our perceptual system Visual Acuity – Ability to see fine detail. Greatest when visual image projects directly onto the fovea because of the densely packed cones and their ‘private line’ to a single bipolar cell each. Photopigments – Protein molecules within the rods and cones whose chemical reactions when absorbing light result in nerve impulses being generated Dark Adaptation – the progressive improvement in brightness sensitivity that occurs over time under conditions of low illumination. After absorbing light a photoreceptor is depleted of its pigment molecules for a period of time (this is why your eyes must adjust after high illumination as the photopigment molecules are regenerated and the receptors sensitivity increases) Trichomatic Theory – Young and Helmholtz. Colour vision theory that three types of colour receptors exist in the retina (red, green, and blue) and that combination of activation of these receptors can produce perception of any hue in the visible spectrum Opponent-process Theory – Hering. Theory that the retina contains three sets of colour receptors that respond differentially to red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white; the opponent processes that result can produce a perception of any hue Dual-process Theory – The modern colour vision theory that combines the two theories above – posits cones that are sensitive to red, blue, and green, and opponent processes at the level of ganglion cells and beyond Primary Visual Cortex – The area of the occipital lobe which receives impulses generated from the retina via the thalamus and analyzes visual input by using its feature detectors Feature Detectors – Sensory neurons that respond/fire selectively to particular features of a stimulus, such as its shape, angle, or colour Parallel Processing – Our ability to use our senses to take in a variety of information about an object and construct a unified image of its properties Visual Association Cortex – Cortical areas in the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes that analyze visual stimuli sent to the primary visual cortex in relation to stored knowledge and that established the “meaning” of the stimuli AUDITION Hertz – The technical measure of cycles per second; 1 hertz equals one cycle per second. Average human can detect sounds from 20 hertz to 20,000 hertz Amplitude (loudness) - The vertical size of sound waves /the amount of compression and expansion of the molecules in the conducting medium – measured in decibels (db) Decibels – A measure of physical pressures occurring at the eardrum. The higher the decibels; the louder the noise. The Human Ear Eardrum – aka tympanic membrane – vibrates in response to sound waves Middle ear – Cavity housing three tiny bones (size of rice grains, smallest in the body). The vibrating activity of these bones amplifies the sound waves more than 30 times. - Hammer/Malleus – Attached firmly to the ear drum - Stirrup/Stapes – Attached to the oval window which forms the boundary between the middle ear and the inner ear - Anvil/Incus Inner Ear - Cochlea – coiled, snail-shaped tube (apprx. 3.5cm long) that is filled with fluid and contains: o Basilar Membrane – A sheet of tissue that runs the length of the cochlea and contains: o The Organ of Corti – The structure inside the basilar membrane which contains about 16,000 tiny hair cells o The Tectorial Membrane – overhands the basilar membrane along the entire length of the cochlea. The tips of the hair cells are attached to this membrane. o Hair cells - The actual sound receptors. They synapse with the neurons of the auditory nerve which, in turn, sends impulses via an auditory relay station in the thalamus to the auditory cortex (which is located in the temporal lobe of the brain) - Hearing = When sound waves strike the eardrum at about 1,200 km/h, pressure created at the oval window by the hammer, anvil, and the stirrup of the middle ear sets the fluid inside the cochlea into motion. The resulting fluid waves vibrate the basilar membrane and the membrane above it, causing hair cells to bend in the organ of corti. This bending triggers release of neurotransmitter substance into the synaptic space between the hair cells and the neurons of the auditory nerve, resulting in nerve impulses that are sent to the brain. Feature detector neurons in the temporal lobe respond to specific kinds of auditory input, much as occurs in the visual system Frequency Theory (of pitch perception) – States that the number of nerve impulses sent to the brain by the hair cells of the cochlea corresponds to the frequency of the sound wave; this theory is accurate at low frequencies Place Theory (of pitch perception) – States that sound frequencies are coded in terms of the portion of the basilar membrane where the fluid wave in the cochlea peaks; this theory accounts for perception of frequencies above 4000 hertz Conduction deafness – Caused by problems involving the mechanical system that transmits sound waves to the cochlea Nerve deafness – cannot be helped by a hearing aid. Caused by damaged receptors within the inner ear or damage to the auditory nerve itself TASTE AND SMELL Gustation – taste Olfaction – smell Both are chemical senses because their receptors are sensitive to chemical molecules rather than to some form of energy Taste buds – chemical receptors concentrated along the edges and back surface of the tongue. Each is highly receptive to one or two of the four basic taste qualities (salty, sour, sweet and bitter) and responds weakly to the others. Olfactory Bulb - forebrain structure immediately above the nasal cavity that receives the input from the odour receptors that fire. Each odour only excites a specific area of the olfactory bulb – odours are coded to a specific area. Pheromones- chemical signals found in natural body scents (argument that they may affect human behaviour in subtle ways) Menstrual Synchrony – the tendency of women who live together or are close friends to become more similar in their menstrual cycles SKIN AND BODY SENSES Tactile Senses – All common sensations are a result of a mixture of one or more of these four sensations - Pressure/Touch - Pain - Cold - Warmth Gate Control Theory – Proposes that experience of pain results from the opening and closing of gating mechanisms in the nervous system- Central control mechanism allows thoughts, emotions and beliefs to influence the experience of pain and helps to explain why pain is a psychological phenomenon as well as a physical one. Glial cells are also involved in the creation and maintenance of pathological pain as they are activated by immune challenges and substances released by neurons with pain pathways. They amplify pain by releasing cytokines that promote inflammation. Endorphins – Built in analgesics/natural opiates that work by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters involved in pain impulses Kinesthesis – The body sense that provides feedback on the position and movements of body parts. Receptors are nerve endings in muscles, tendons, and joints. Vestibular Sense – Sense of body orientation or equilibrium. Receptors are in the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear (3 semicircular canals which contain the hair cell receptors for head movement sense acceleration and deceleration of left-right, back-forward, up-down – constant movement = at rest. At the base of these canals = vestibular sacs which respond to body position – upright or angled) PERCEPTION Bottom-Up Processing – The system takes in individual elements of the stimulus and then combines them into a unified perception Top-Down Processing – Sensory information is interpreted in the light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas, and expectations Shadowing – Person simultaneously receives 2+ messages and is asked to focus on one of them, then asked to report on the other message as well – generally they will have issues doing so (Inattentional Blindness) Inattentional Blindness – Failure of unattended stimuli to register in consciousness (we can only attend to one thing at a time, although we can rapidly switch from one to another) Figure-Ground Relations – Perceptual organization in which a focal stimulus is perceived as a figure against a background of other stimuli Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization – - Similarity – When parts of a configuration are perceived as similar they will be perceived as belonging together - Proximity – Elements that are near each other are likely to be perceived as part of the same configuration - Closure – People tend to close the open edges of a figure/fill in the gaps of an incomplete figure so that their identification of the form is more complete - Continuity – People link individual elements together so that they form a continuous line or pattern that makes more sense Perceptual Schema – A mental representation or image that contains essential features of an object of perception (recognizing a stimulus implies we have a perceptual schema to compare it with in our head) Perceptual Set – A readiness to perceive stimuli in a particular way (sometimes believing is seeing) based on expectations, assumptions, motivations and current emotional state Perceptual Constancies – Recognize familiar stimulus characteristics (size, colour etc.) under changing conditions - Shape Constancy – Allows recognition of shape/person/thing from different angles - Brightness Constancy - Relative brightness of objects remains the same despite different conditions of illumination because ratio of light between object and surroundings is constant - Size Constancy – Size of object remains constant though images on retina change with distance (can recognize that a man in the background of a picture is not necessarily half the height of the man in the front of the picture simply because he’s further away and appears smaller) Monocular Depth Cues – Depth cues using one eye - Light and Shadow cue - Linear perspective cue (parallel lines angle towards each other as they recede into the distance, i.e. train tracks) - Interposition (Closer objects block view of farther objects) - Height in Horizontal Plane - Texture (texture appears finer with distance) - Clarity (nearby = clearer) - Relative Size - Motion Parallax (your movement makes nearby objects appear to be moving faster in opposite direction than farther objects) Binocular Depth Cues – Depth cues using both eyes - Binocular Disparity – binocular depth cues produced by projection of slightly different images of an object on the retinas of the two eyes. - Convergence – Another binocular distance cue, produced by feedback from the muscles that turn your eyes inward to view near object Stroboscopic Movement – Illusory movement produced when a light is briefly flashed in darkness and then a few milliseconds later, flashed in another area nearby – the light appears to be moving, not separate flashes Chapter 6 Key Terms Consciousness – Our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment - Subjective and private (no one can experience another person’s reality) - Dynamic and ever-changing (in and out of various states) - Self-reflective and central to our sense of self (mind is aware of own consciousness) - Intimately connected with the process of selective attention Controlled (effortful) Processing – The voluntary use of attention and conscious effort Automatic Processing – Can be performed with little or no conscious effort (most often occurs in routine or well learned actions – as you learn it is conscious and controlled, with practice becomes automatic) Divided Attention – the ability to perform more than one activity at the same time. Without the ability to divide attention every act would require out full attention and quickly overwhelm our mental capacity Circadian Rhythms – biological cycles within the body that occur on an approximately 24-hour cycle Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) – The brain’s master “biological clock” located in the hypothalamus that regulates most circadian rhythms. Environmental factors such as day-night cycle help keep SCN neurons on a 24-hour schedule (for example, eyes have neural connections to SCN so day light influences SCN activity) Melatonin – A hormone released by the pineal gland that has a relaxing effect on the body and promotes readiness for sleep (SCN neurons are active during the day to reduce the pineal gland’s secretion of melatonin while you should be awake and are inactive at night so melatonin helps sleep) Free­running Circadian Rhythms ­  Free running is a term used to describe a circadian rhythm that is not entrained to any kind of  external time cues, such as the natural dark­light cycle (happens, for example, when people are kept in isolation without light or at times to  those who are blind)  Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) – A cyclic tendency to become psychologically depressed during certain months of the year (usually in fall or winter with shorter periods of daylight) Rotating Shift Work – A forward rotating work schedule that changes work shifts by extending a worker’s “waking day” rather than compressing it Beta Waves – A brain-wave pattern of 15-30 cycles per second (a high frequency) that is characteristic of humans who are in
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