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Pysc 1000 Final Exam

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Psychology 1000
Mark Holden

Chapter 1Psychology The Science of Behaviour PsychologyThe scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it Taking into account Biological Individual and Environmental factors Basic and Applied Science Two types of research oBasic research Knowledge gained purely for its own sake The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it Research maybe carried out in lab or real worldeg Robert CaveJigsaw case studyshowed how competition leads to hostility but could be reduced by making them dependent on each other oApplied research Knowledge gained to solve specific practical problems Uses principles discovered via basic research to solve practical problems Goals of Psychology Four basic goals DEuPIc oDescribe how people and animals behave oExplain and understand the causes of the behaviour oPredict how people and animals behave under certain conditions oInfluence or control the behaviour through knowledge and control of causes Importance of Perspectives Diverse viewpoints allows for enriched understanding of behaviour and its causes Six different perspectives biological cognitive psychodynamic behavioural humanistic and sociocultural PBSHBC oPsychodynamicunconscious forces motivating behaviour oBehaviouralrole of external environment on out action oSocioculturalculture and behaviour relate oHumanisticself actualization and free will oBiologicalphysical side of human nature brain and genes oCognitivethought process The Biological Perspective Focuses on the physical side of human nature oEmphasizes role of brain including biochemical processes Mindbody dualism The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body oNo amount of research on the body could ever explain the mind oAncient widelyheld view especially by Greeks Monism The belief that the mind and body are one and mental events are a product of physical events oModern view by most scientists Discovery of BrainBehaviour Relations Late 1700s Luigi Galvani discovered severed leg of frog moved with electrical current applied to it oDefied prior belief that bodily movements were caused by soul By 1870 researchers applied electrical stimulation directly to brains of animals oStimulation of specific areas on brain resulted in movements of particular muscles Karl Lashley damaged specific regions of brain and studied effects on learning and memory abilities in animals trained to run through mazes In 1929 invention of electroencephalogram EEG allowed researchers to measure electrical activity of large areas of brain 1Evolution and Behaviour Darwins theory of natural selection demonstrated that inheritable characteristics that increase likelihood of survival will be maintained Proposed that humans and apes arose from the same ancestor Evolutionary psychology focuses on role of evolution in development of human behaviour oPsychologists stress organisms biology determine its behavioural capabilities and behaviour Sociobiology holds that complex social behaviours are built into human species as products of evolution oNatural selection favors behaviours that increase ability to pass on genes aggression competition dominance in males cooperation and nurturing in females etc oSociobiologists believe that ones genetic survival is more important than ones own physical survival altruism oCriticized for overemphasizing innate biological factors at expense of cultural and social learning factors in explaining complex human social behaviour Behaviour Genetics Study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors Animals can be bred not only for physical but also behavioural traits aggression intelligence etc Identical twins with identical genetic makeup are very similar in behaviour compared to fraternal twins oFound even when identical twins reared in different homes The Cognitive Perspective Views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning What sets humans apart is that we have mental capabilities oStudies how mental processes influence our motives emotions and behaviour Several schools and individuals contributed to modern cognitive perspective oStructuralism Analysis of mind in terms of its basic elements Studied sensations through introspection looking withinPatients were exposed to stimuli and asked to explain their experiences Wilhelm Wundt wanted to model study of the mind after physical and biological sciences Believed mind could be studied via breaking it down to its basic parts this was called structuralism Believed sensations were basic elements of consciousnessFounded first laboratory of experimental psychology in 1879 oFunctionalism Psychology should study the functions of consciousness the whys rather than its structure the Whats Influenced partly by Darwins evolutionary theory adaption to succeed William James broad functionalist approach helped widen the scope of psychology to include biologicalmental processes and behaviour oGestalt Psychology Concerned with how elements of experience are organized into wholes Opposite of structuralism Wolfgang Kohler concluded that ability to perceive relationships is the essence of intelligence Defined insight as sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem Demonstrated insight by observing chimpanzee use various items in a cage to reach a banana at the top oJean Piaget Studied how children think reason and solve problems 2Concerned with how the mind and its development contribute to our ability to adapt to our environment oAlbert Ellis and Aaron Beck Attempted to understand how mental distortions and irrational thought patterns create emotional problems Emphasized that distress and maladaptive behaviour are caused by the ways situations are thought about not by external situations Modern Cognitive Science Artificial intelligence develops computer models of complex human thought reasoning and problem solving Interested in how people produce and recognize speech and how creative solutions to problems are produced Social constructivism What we consider reality is in large part our own mental creation oLittle shared reality exists apart from what groups of people socially construct through subjective meaning they give to their experiences oBelieve male and female sex roles created not by nature but by shared world view that exists within social groups The Psychodynamic Perspective Searches for causes of behaviour within workings of personality emphasizing role of unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from past Sigmund Freud emphasized role of complex psychological forces in controlling human behaviour oFocused on hysteria condition where physical symptoms develop without organic cause oFound improvement in patients after they reported and relived painful childhood sexual experiences oLed Freud to believe that most of human behaviour is influenced by unconscious forces oBelieved repression was a defense mechanism to keep anxietyarousing impulses feelings and memories in unconscious depth of mind oAll behaviour is a reflection of unconscious internal struggle between conflicting psychological forces of impulse and defenses Freud opposed laboratory research and depended on clinical observations and personal selfanalysis The Behavioural Perspective Focuses on the role of the external environment in shaping and governing our actions oBehaviour influenced by learned habits and by stimuli in the environment History rooted in school of philosophy known as British Empiricism oAll ideas and knowledge are gained empirically oJohn Locke The human mind is initially a white paper to be furnished by experience oObservation overrules reasoning since seeing is believing while reasoning has potential for error oPavlov found involuntary learning in dogs from external stimulus John Watson lead movement of behaviourism in 1920s oProper subject matter of psychology is observable behaviour not unobservable inner consciousness oDevoted efforts to discovering laws that govern learning and performance B F Skinner believed mental events images and feelings from within are behaviours and not causes Behaviour modification techniques alter problem behaviours and increase positive behaviours through alterations in environmental factors Cognitive behaviourism is an attempt to bridge gap between behavioural and cognitive perspectives oEnvironment exerts effects on behaviour by affecting thoughts oMental abilities allow control of behaviour and influence of environment control varies from environmentperson and personenvironment 3
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