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47 Pages

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Psychology 1000

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Chapter 9Thought Language and IntelligenceLanguageThe Nature and Structure of LanguageLanguagea system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meaningsoThree critical properties of languageSymbolic Uses sounds written signs or gestures to refer to objects events ideas and feelingsDisplacementcapacity of language to represent objects and conditions that arent physically presentStructure Has rules that govern how symbols can be combined to create meaningful communication unitsGenerative Symbols can be combined to generate an almost infinite number of messages Language StructureSurface structureconsists of the way symbols are combined within a given languageoSyntaxthe rules for the combination of symbolsDeep structurerefers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbolsoSemanticsthe rules for connecting the symbols to what they representExample Flying planes can be dangerous surfaceoDeep 1 Planes are dangerousoDeep 2 Piloting a plane is dangerousNoam Chomsky Transformational grammaroRules transform meaning of the deep structure to sequence of the surface structureoSentencePhrasesWordsMorphemesPhonemesPhonemessmallest units of sound recognized as separate in a given languageMorphemessmallest units of meaning in a languageoInclude base words prefixes suffixes etcHumorVarious forms of humor based on languageoPhonological ambiguityconfusion of soundsoLexical ambiguityconfusion or double meaning of wordsoSyntactic ambiguityconfusion of structureoSemantic ambiguityconfusion of meaningChildren progress from phonological and lexical humor to syntactic and semanticAcquiring a LanguageBiological FoundationsoSeveral facts suggest biological basis for language acquisitionHuman children despite limited thinking skills begin to master language at early life without formal instructionoBetween 13 months infants vocalize entire range of phonemes found in worlds languages cooingoBy 2 months infacts show phoneme discriminationoAbout six months infants begin to make sounds of their native tongue and to discard those of other languagesoLinguists believe there exists a critical period between infancy and puberty when language is most easily learnedoCan children form language without hearing others speakWild childrennoIsolated childrenmaybeLack adult models for language eg deaf kids with parents who dont use sign languagemaybeCan develop signs with rudimentary syntaxOther animalsnooSex differencesMen who suffer left hemisphere strokes are more likely than women to show severe aphasic symptoms disruption in speech comprehension andor production Suggests that women may share more language function with right hemisphereSocial Learning ProcessesoMotheresehigh pitched intonation used by parents to converse with infantsoBF Skinner developed operant conditioning explanation for language acquisitionChildrens language development is strongly governed by adults reinforcing appropriate language and nonreinforcing of inappropriate verbalizationProblemsChildren learn much too fastParents typically do not correct grammar as much as truth valueoTelegraphic speechtwo word sentences uttered during second year of life that consist of a noun and verb eg Want cookieBilingualism Learning a Second LanguageoLearned best and spoken most fluently when learned during critical period of childhoodoIf both languages are learned at early age they often function in the same brain regionLinguistic Influences on ThinkingEmpiriciststhought is a mental imageBehaviouriststhought is a motor actionLinguistic relativity hypothesislanguage not only influences but also determines what we are capable of thinkingoMultiple studies have disproved the determination partModern view is that language can influence how we think how efficiently we categorize our experiences and how much detail we attend to in our daily life experienceLanguage also influences how well we think in certain domainsoEnglish children consistently score lower than Asian children in mathematical skills due to words and symbols used in each language to represent numbersChinese uses easier system to learn numbers 11ten oneEnglish speakers must use more complex system 11elevenPropositional thoughta form of linguistically based thought that expresses a statement in subjectpredicate thoughtImaginal thoughta form of thinking that uses images that can be from any sense modalityMotoric thoughtmental representations of motor movementsConcepts and PropositionsPropositionsstatements that express factsoConsist of concepts combined in a particular wayTypically one concept is a subject another is a predicateConceptsbasic units of semantic memory mental categories into which we place objects activities abstractions and events that have essential features in commonPrototypesmost typical and familiar members of a class that defines a conceptoUse of prototypes is most elementary method of forming conceptsRequires only that we note similarities among objectsReasoning and Problem SolvingReasoningTwo types of reasoningoDeductive reasoningreasoning from a general principle to a specific caseBasis of formal mathematics and logicViewed as stronger and more valid reasoning because conclusion cannot be false if premises are trueSyllogism If all humans are mortal first premise and Socrates is a human second premise then Socrates must be mortal conclusionoInductive reasoningreasoning from specific facts to develop a general principleLeads to likelihood rather than certaintyNew observations may disprove conclusionStumbling Blocks in ReasoningoDistraction by irrelevant informationpeople take into account irrelevant information that leads them astrayoFailure to apply deductive rulespeople think of problem solving methods as to be used only in certain situations and cannot apply to new problemsoBelief biastendency to abandon logical rules in favour of personal beliefsStudents claimed conclusion was not correct to following syllogism All things that are smoked are good for ones health cigarettes are smoked therefore cigarettes are good for ones healthProblem SolvingFour stages of problem solvingoUnderstanding or framing the problemproblem must be framed optimally to have chance of generating an effective solutionoGenerating potential solutionsmust determine which procedures and explanations will be considered and which solutions are consistent with evidenceoTesting the solutionsremaining solutions must be tested and evaluatedMental settendency to stick to solutions that have worked in pastCan result in less effective problem solvingoEvaluating resultsProblem solving schemasstep by step scripts for selecting information and solving specialized classes of problemsOnce we have mastered the process we are completing and seem to know what were doing we no longer have to engage in stepbystep formal problemsolving procedures oExperts rely on schemas that are developed with experienceoDevelopment of expertise is accompanied by alterations in brain functioning that increase processing efficiencyoWorking memoryweakest link in the human mind Algorithms and heuristicsoAlgorithmsformulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutionsoHeuristicsgeneral problem solving strategies that are applied to certain classes of situationsMeans end analysisidentify differences between present situation and ones desired stategoal and make changes to reduce differences
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