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April Final Practice Exam + Answers

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

1. Randy comes home from a party late at night and sees a piece of his mom’s wonderful cheesecake. There is only one piece left and it has his sister’s name on it. He decides to eat it anyway. According to Freud, Randy’s need for immediate gratification is because of the A) influence of the id B) ego operating according to the pleasure principle C) compromise between the id and the superego D) superego’s complete lack of morality E) influence of the superego on the ego 2. Dennis is downloading songs from the internet illegally. His mom sees this and reprimands him. Dennis responds by saying that he is actually protecting the environment by doing this because he hasn’t driven to the mall to buy the CD. This is an example of a psychoanalytical defence mechanism called A) depression B) rationalization C) fixation D) electra E) denial 3. Freud’s stages of psychosexual development have received much attention and criticism. Neoanalysts disagreed with Freud because A) he placed too much emphasis on the phallic stage B) they believed that personality developed throughout the lifetime C) they believed he stressed infantile sexuality too much D) they believed he put too much stress on cultural factors E) both B) & C) 4. A young woman with a negative self-concept believes she is totally unattractive to men. However, a very desirable man asks her out on a date. Her response is most likely A) to turn him down B) to think that he is just trying to be nice, so that she can maintain her negative image C) to increase her self-concept to become more positive D) to think that he finally came to his senses E) to decrease her self-concept to become even more negative 5. Trait theorists differ on how many traits it takes to describe a person’s personality. Cattel’s theory would be more likely to describe ________, and the Big Five is probably adequate to describe ____________ A) nuances of behaviour, the most important features of personality B) behaviours to a moderate degree, specific behaviours C) the most important features of personality, nuances of behaviour D) North Americans, European cultures E) a limited view of personality, a comprehensive view of personality 6. Recently, Linda went to visit a fortune teller who told her that she would be meeting the man of her dreams in the coming year. According to Rotter, Linda probably believed the fortune teller because A) she has an internal locus of control B) she is a low self-monitor C) she has a high need for self-verification D) she has an external locus of control E) she has a need for positive regard 7. Peter has been playing high school football for the past few years. Most of the time, he has sat on the bench and not actually played during a game. His beliefs about his ability to perform under pressure have been sliding and he now has questions about his own football skills. According to Bandura, peter is declining in his A) locus of control B) self efficacy C) condition of worth D) introversion E) goal setting perspective 8. The MMPI is the most widely used personality inventory. Part of its design includes three validity scales. These 3 scales are used A) to detect severe personality deviations B) to detect important aspects of personality functioning C) to detect the degree to which the individual’s responses resemble a psychiatric group D) to detect tendencies to present either an overly positive picture or to exaggerate the degree of psychological disturbance E) to detect a non-psychiatric sample 9. When Rita attends the gym she is outgoing and agreeable. At work she continues to be shy and moody. She is most likely A) an extreme self-monitor B) an extrovert C) not very attentive to cues D) to count on good things happening to her E) a low self-monitor 10. According to Freud, penis envy results from A) a boy’s fear that the father will castrate him B) a girl’s identification with her mother C) a girl’s wish for a penis D) fixation at the genital stage E) a boy’s wish to marry his mother 11. Specific phobias primarily differ from Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in that A) generalized anxiety disorder is associated with avoidance behaviors, whereas specific phobias are not B) for phobias, anxiety primarily occurs in response to very specific stimuli, whereas generalized anxiety disorder is associated with a chronic state of diffuse tension C) generalized anxiety disorder is associated with symptoms of physiological arousal (such as rapid heartbeat and sweaty palms), whereas phobias are not D) for females, generalized anxiety disorderis more prevalent than phobias E) both A) & B) above 12. Related to the causes of depression, which of the following pairings of theoretical perspective and proposed cause of depression is LEAST accurate? A) biological perspective; overactivity in the serotonin and norepinephrine systems B) Freud; early traumatic childhood losses or rejections C) Aaron Beck; depressive cognitive triad D) Lewinsohn’s behavioral model; loss of positive reinforcement E) sociocultural perspective; lack of strong family connections 13. According to Cognitive theorists such as David Barlow, panic disorder is caused by A) a state of learned helplessness B) exaggerated misinterpretations of normal anxiety responses C) an unconscious association between fear and a given stimulus D) inadequate defense mechanisms to manage unconscious conflicts E) negative views of the self that are both global and stable 14. Which of the following statements is/are true regarding depression? A) after the first episode, depression typically remits in 5 to 10 months, even if untreated B) depression is more prevalent in females than in males C) approximately half of the individuals who experience an episode of depression will experience future episodes of depression D) approximately one in five females will experience depression at some point in her lifetime E) all of the above 15. Which of the following is/are considered to be a “positive” symptom of schizophrenia? A) hallucinations B) delusions C) blunted affect D) both A) & B) above E) all of the above 16. “Trauma-dissociation theory” suggests that _____________ will emerge when children dissociate to defend themselves from severe and ongoing physical or sexual abuse A) Dissociative Identity Disorder B) Psychogenic Amnesia C) Psychogenic Fugue D) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder E) Schizophrenia 17. The ‘dopamine hypothesis” suggests that the symptoms of schizophrenia, particularly the __________ are caused by __________ A) negative symptoms; overactivity in the dopamine system B) negative symptoms; underactivity in the dopamine system C) positive symptoms; underactivity in the dopamine system D) positive symptoms; overactivity in the dopamine system E) symptoms of Type II schizophrenia; an absence of dopamine receptors 18. Sasha’s physician has referred her for psychological treatment. In the referral, her physician describes her as “a young woman who has a chronic instability in her self-image and her interpersonal relationships, as well as chronic difficulties with expressions of emotion that alternate between extremes of love and hate. Sasha is most likely being referred for treatment of A) Schizoid personality disorder B) Dependent personality disorder C) Borderline personality disorder D) Antisocial personality disorder E) Depressive personality disorder 19. Which of the following would be coded on Axis III of the DSM-IV diagnostic and classification system? A) mood disorders B) diabetes C) somatoform disorders D) personality disorders E) developmental disorders 20. Regarding hypochondriasis, which of the following statements is/are true? A) hypochondriasis is considered to be a somatoform disorder B) hypochondriasis is characterized by a heightened sense of alarm related to physical symptoms, and a conviction that a disease exists despite evidence to the contrary C) hypochondriasis is characterized by neurological symptoms that have no physical cause with the symptoms developing in response to a severe trauma D) hypochondriasis is characterized by intense pain that has no physical cause E) both A) & B) above 21. Sara has a severe phobia of closed spaces. Typically, she avoids elevators but one day as she is running very late for a meeting, she decides to take the elevator rather than the stairs. As luck would have it, the elevator gets stuck between floors and Sara is trapped alone on the elevator for many hours until the technicians resolve the problem. According to learning theory, a likely outcome of this experience is that Sara will __________, as this naturally occurring situation is similar to the treatment technique of _________ A) overcome her fear of closed spaces; flooding B) overcome her fear of closed spaces; systematic desensitization C) overcome her fear of closed spaces; aversive conditioning D) have a greater fear of closed spaces; flooding E) have a greater fear of closed spaces; token economy 22. Research on treatment outcome, has established that effective therapies share some common factors. These common factors include which of the following? A) a strong therapeutic alliance (and fai
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