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ch 14-17 text summary.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 14PersonalityPersonalitythe distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a persons responses to life situationsAspects of personality have three characteristicsoSeen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other peopleoBehaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factorsoBehaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviourThe Psychodynamic PerspectiveFreuds Psychoanalytic TheoryoConsidered personality to be an energy systemoPsychic energygenerated by instinctual drives this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect releaseBuildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity or indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictionsoMental events are dividedConsciousevents that we are presently aware ofPreconsciousmemories thoughts feelings images that we are unaware of at the moment but can be recalledUnconsciousdynamic realm of wishes feelings and impulses that lie beyond our awarenessoPersonality divided into three separate but interacting structuresIdprimitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instinctsOperates according to the pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations or realityEgoexecutive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id prohibitions of superego and dictates of realityOperates according to reality principle tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulsesSuperegomoral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of societyRewards compliance with pride and noncompliance with guiltoId and superego are formed when child is young ego develops lateroIceberg analogyid is below the water unconscious while ego and superego are mostly above water consciousEgo is mostly above water while superego has portions both above and underoUnconscious conflictinteraction of id ego and superego results in constant struggle causing anxietyReality anxietyegos fear of real world threatsNeurotic anxietyegos fear of ids desiresMoral anxietyegos fear of guilt from superegooDefense mechanismsunconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxietyarousing impulsesRepressionego uses some of its energy to prevent anxietyarousing memories from entering consciousnessSublimination displacementcompletely masking the sinister underlying impulses through other forms art sports etcRationalizationurge reinterpreted in acceptable termsProjectionown urges seen in others I hate you becomes You hate meIsolationmemories allowed back into consciousness without motives or emotionsRegressionmentally returning to an earlier safer stateConversionconflict converted into physical symptom developing blindness so as not to see an anxietyarousing situationoPsychosexual stagesstages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain body partsOral 02 Anal 23 Phallic 46 Latency 7puberty Genital pubertyDeprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation in which instincts are focused on a particular themeOedipus complexthe male child experiences erotic feelings toward his mother and views his father as a rival females complex referred to as Electra complexEvaluating Psychoanalytic TheoryoAlfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest the desire to advance the welfare of othersoCarl Jung developed analytic psychologyHumans not only posses a personal unconscious of life experiences but a collective unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of humanityMemories are represented by archetypes inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain waysoObject relationsthe images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregiversThe Humanistic PerspectiveSelfactualizationthe total realization of ones human potentialCarl Rogerss Self TheoryoSelfan organized consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneselfMust have selfconsistency absence of conflict among selfperceptions and congruency consistency between selfperceptions and experiences to maintain selfconceptExperiences that are inconsistent with selfconcept evokes threat and anxietyoPeople are born with a need for positive regard acceptance sympathy and loveUnconditional positive regardcommunicated attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of another personConditional positive regarddependant on behaviour of the childNeed for positive selfregard developsLack of unconditional positive regard leafs to belief that they are worthy of love only when standards are metFosters development of conditions of worth that dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselvesoFully functioning personsselfactualized people who are free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence spontaneity creativity and a desire to develop further
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