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Psychology 1000

Psychology 1000 Thursday, 8 March, 2012 Review  Prejudice  Adult development  Major points Next time: Stress Scan: p. 581 – 599 What is the cause of prejudice? Does anything happen after 18 years of age? What do I need to know for the exam? a. Less selective in mate selection b. More selective in mate selection c. Less likely to survive and reproduce d. More likely to have multiple partners e. More concerned with propinquity Prejudice  Prejudice is an attitude  Discrimination is a behaviour  Both negative & unjustified Theories of Prejudice  Hovland & Sears (1940) o Displaced aggression  Attack secondary target (weak), dislike group, and engage in discriminatory activity to displace aggressive feelings (in actuality, this method intensifies aggressive feelings)  Realistic Conflict o Limited resources  Prejudice and discrimination following simple because resources are scarce  Social Identity o Enhances own self-esteem o Categorization 1 Thursday, 8 March, 2012 Psychology 1000 “They all look alike to me”  Outgroup homogeneity effect o Brigham et al. (1982)  Eyewitness study TAJFEL & W ILKES(1963)  Categorization  Drive group homogeneity o Increased conflict and prejudice Adult Development  Does anything happen after 18? ERIK ERIKSON  Trained by Anna Freud  Stages of psychosocial development  Resolving life crises (identity crisis)  Covers entire life span  Work through each stage to healthy, successful resolution  Can “go back” to reverse earlier stage, but difficult Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Stage 1: Birth – 1 yr.  Basic trust vs. mistrusts Infant comes to know if caregiver is dependable Stage 5: Adolescence  Identity vs. identity confusion Successful  positive identity Unsuccessful  confusion  negative identity Sigmund Freud Five Psychosexual Stages st 1. Oral (1 year) 2. Anal (2 year) 2 Psychology 1000 Thursday, 8 March, 2012 3. Phallic (3 – 5) Oedipal Crisis 4. Latency (5 – 13) 5. Genital (13+) Exam Predictions based on theories (do not memorize) Language: Chapter 9  Properties of language  Syntax o Putting it together, generate meaning (humour, Chomsky – deep processing vs. surface processing)  Language learning o How do kids pick up language & processes  Structure of thought o Deductive & inductive reasoning, how thought could be perceived  Heuristic processing o Rules of thumb, easy, can predict outcomes, but can lead us astray o Availability, sensitivity Intelligence: Chapter 10  Psychometric tradition o How to measure intelligence  Unitary vs. multiplex
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