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CHAPTER NOTES.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 1021E
Professor
Kim Luton

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Text chapter 1 Chapter 1Definition of SociologyThe study of social behaviour and relationships Explains why members of some groups behave differently than members of other groups Modern development of sociology is due to theIndustrial Revolution French Revolution Both lead to changes and growth of trade and cities as well as a new organization of workEarly Sociologists Auguste Comtecredited by some as the founder of sociology Sociologists would be priests to guide society Emile Durkheimsociety was like the human body various segments work for the whole Karl Marxsocieties are founded on power coercion and conflictFunctionalism Function social arrangements exist because they benefit society Equilibrium stability based on balance among parts and consensus Dysfunctions problems that occur Development progress through differentiation to develop new forms and their integrationConflict Theory Power holds society together Conflict societys natural state Bourgeoisie owners of capital dominate Proletariat workers Revolution was the means of changeSymbolic Interactionism Micro smallscale perspective Emphasizes subjective over objective Behaviour and attitudes depend on how people construct their social world Agents individuals have goals and pursue them Mead people interact by strings of symbols eg Language Blumer people act toward things on the basis of meanings those things have for them Game Theory what one chooses depends on what others chooseFeminist Theories Focus on women and gender More activist raises consciousness Interdisciplinary taking leadership roles Accept a broader range of approach to research Mix different sociological approachesMULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONSOne of the major concerns of sociology is a explain individual sources of behaviour b the difference between cultural transmission and cultural uniformity c to explain how membership insocial groups affects individual behaviour d the source of deviant behaviour e to study the production and consumption of resourcesSymbolic interactionism focuses on a a macro level of analysis b the place of art in society c cultural integration d the autonomy of individuals e conversational analysis in groupsFeminist approaches include the following excepta an examination of gender as one variable among many b looking at the informal and hidden aspects of social life c an examination of gender roles d a more disciplinary approach e acceptance of a variety of sociological modelsWeber more than Durkheim believed that sociology should include a linguistic relativism b subjective states of the individual c mechanical solidarity d ac e bcanswers 1c 2d 3a 4b Sociological Theory Lecture 1 Goals of sociologyo Describe the social world o Explain how and why o Critique existing social arrangements The term sociology was coined by Auguste Comte in 1988 Religion was the most important before this time Within sociology there are sociological perspectives they look at thing differently based on experiences and impact how you understand something no one is more correct than the other The sociological theory is based on theoretical paradigmsa basic image of society that guides thinking and research o Four main theoretical paradigms structural functionalism conflict theory symbolic internationalism and feminism o They impact how your research is donelooked at Structural Functionalism Founding fatherEmile Durkheim o Modern society creates anomiea condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals normalness o We are all different but we NEED each other A macro level orientation broad patterns that shape society as a whole Thinks of society as a body parts working together to achieve balance if one part is disabled than all parts will be affectedKeys structures are stable patterns of social behaviourframe work hold everything together AND institutions are subsystems of enduring patterns of social relationshipsexamples of this are family and religion The normal state of the system is equilibrium Change has to be slow so there is time to adapt they do not like change Functions of social processes every activity on society has beneficial consequences for the system AND these consequences are their functions and they explain the activityfunction of family is to reproduce create workers and then consume Functionspositive AND Dysfunctionsnegativeprostitution must be positive because its been with us so long it must serve a purpose in societyTypes of Functions o Manifest functionsare intendedconsequences of an activity o Latent functionsare unintendedand often unrecognized but socially important consequences of an activity social networkingCritique too broad ignores inequalities of social class race and gender focuses on stability at the expense of conflict and assumes natural order structural functionalism is not very popular anymore Conflict Theory
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