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Sociology 1st Semester Final 2169 Notes.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2169
Stephen Adams

CHAPTER 3SKILLS To what extent require skillTheories disagreeHistorical trends are not clearWhy important o Work that requires skill enhances sense of mastery selfesteem pride and status o Skilled work seen as more fulfilling o Work identified as requiring skill pays better Broad TrendsAdam Smith believed that divisions of labour technology repetition and specialization actually o enhances themleads to more productivity and provided more skillMarx capitalists will increase surplus value if use technology organizational change to produce more with less skilled workers because skilled workers are more expensive workers he believed in deskillingWeber also believed in deskilling and believed need for skilled labour would decreaseHowever semiskilled workers division o Specialist in narrower areas o Need training but less o Also believed like smith narrower work produced more productivity Historical Trends implications for skillScientific management Fordism said to decrease skill o If left alone the employees would participate in soldieringExpansion of managerial professional and other planning jobs imply increaseSome suggest polarization Skill TrendsDeskilling o Work is fragmented simplified and controlled such that working requires less skill than it once didWorkers are denied opportunity to use skills formerly exercised at workSkill Upgrading o Work requires more skill than it once did Workers have to acquire new skills to keep up DebatesBraverman control of work is increasingly being removed from workers o Two trends deskilling skill polarizationBell labour market change with the expansion of the service economy leads to skill upgrading o more employment in jobs requiring skillToday service sector is actually associated with skill polarization its distribution is bifurcatedKnowledge economy argument o With technological change workforce is more educated o Working now seen to require an intelligence that working did not require in the past Relationship between education and skill is problematicThis makes determining skill trends difficult o Just because someone has education doesnt mean they exercise skill on the job Credential InflationTendency for education requirement for jobs to increase whether or not more skill is required o Is related to social closureCutting off access to skilled jobs by raising requirements
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