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Midterm

Sociology 1020 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mcjob, Hypermasculinity, Heterogamy


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Study Guide
Midterm

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SOCIOLOGY 1020 – Midterm #2 Study Notes
LECTURE NOTES:
Gender:
Sex:
oAscribed status as a biological category based on the physiological differences, determined at conception as a result of
cell formation
oCreates a dichotomy = either or – male or female
oCastor Semenya – set the world record for the 800m race at the Olympics but since she couldn’t repeat it, she was
investigated for her sex. This finding was never revealed but she was cleared for further competitions.
oSex is a continuum from male to female
o1-3% of babies born are intersexed – 90% of these babies were the made female until 1995. (Babies born with a
large clitoris or a small penis were surgically changes and assigned a sex)
oCheryl Chase – woman that was born intersexed but surgically changed into a female, and she founded the ISNA (Intersex
Society of North America)
Gender:
oSocially constructed - based on social expectations for individuals
oCulturally defined - set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture and over time within a society
oGender norms = rules specifying appropriate behaviour for each gender – aka gender scripts, this creates a dichotomy
(you have to either be feminine or masculine, etc.)
oEg: in a list from 1968:
oBoys are to be masculine, aggressive, tough, daring, and dominant
oGirls are to be feminine, soft, emotional, sweet, and submissive
oSex codes = regulate sexual behaviour outside marriages in a given society
o41% of societies are okay with premarital sex, 27% are strongly opposed to it
owith premarital sexual standards:
1. Abstinence standard – forbids it.
2. Double standard – granted men the “right”
3. Love standard (new!) – sex is an expression of love so premarital sex is okay if they love each other
(women usually have this view)
4. Fun standard – sex is a tool of pleasure (men usually have this view)
oRisman = conducted a study with 19000 college students in 22 colleges in America (18-22 year olds) about what
they thought of sex. There are 4 categories in regards to views around premarital sex:
1. Egalitarian conservative
2. Egalitarian libertarian
3. Traditional double standard
4. Reverse double standard
oGender identity = divided into 2 categories:
oAchieved status = earn/learn it
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oMaster status = primary identifying characteristic of an individual
Hughes = you filter everything through this as the basis of your identity
oThis is a powerful aspect of self-concept which develops in accordance with the individuals gender and social
definitions of that gender within the larger gendered order (set of structural relations through which people are
treated differently because of their gender, developing the gender identity)
oBecoming your gender is a process you take up through socialization. A child between 18 months and 3 years had already
developed their gender identity.
oPatriarchy = in almost all societies, a system of dominance in which cultural, political, and economic structures have been
created by men and are maintained for the benefit of men as a group.
oGender intensification = process by which individuals are influenced to hyper-differentiate themselves from the other
gender (through appearance & behaviour) and psychological differences between men and women increase
oadolescence is key period of this identity manipulation at 11-12 years old – during secondary socialization stage
operpetuated by mass media and advertising – the average person is exposed to 3000 ads per day
oeffects:
ill prepares men and women for roles they will perform later on
impossible standards leads to low self-esteem/high dissatisfaction (men then externalize their problems
(i.e. drinking, violence, etc.) and women internalize their problems (i.e. eating disorders, cutting, etc.))
emphasizes dominant/submissive nature of male/female relationship, perpetuating gender inequality
oStereotype = occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a
particular group; socially constructed ideas
oGender stereotypes = attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or
female; thus, being treated in preconceived ways by this judgment.
oThere are more similarities than differences between the sexes. Most human characteristics fall into a normal
distribution (most people have the same characteristics, with few at either ends of spectrum)
oPersistence of gender differences:
oGender schema = shapes the ways in which we notice, interpret, and remember information according to our
expectations about gender; makes daily interactions easier in that you write people off and don’t have to spend
time on them
oSocial roles enhance/suppress different capabilities
oDifferential ender socialization leads males and females to develop different skills and attitudes which leads to
different behaviours – this is recognized as being the “naturalization of biology”
oGender stratification = social status and social roles that men and women occupy in society; leads to social
attitudes about “correct” gender roles for men and women, leading to different statuses – their place in society in
based on the value we put on their role in the division of labour
oWage gap:
oIn 2009, women outnumbered men in the labour force for the 1st time (women outnumber men in part-time work
also)
o“pink collar jobs” – occupational ghettos predominately employed with women, where they are overrepresented
oWomen now receive 58% of university degrees
oReasons for the gendered wage gap:
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Human capital – education/field of study (women: social sciences vs. men: sciences, maths,
engineering), experience (uninterrupted work leads to faster senority), tenure/senority, etc.
Demographics – marital status, children, etc.
Job characteristics – occupational segregation, industries, size of establishment, type of work
Feminization of poverty – more women likely to become poor
oHousework:
o74% of household chores in Canada are done by women
oStatsCanada predicts that in 2050, there will be an equal gender division of labour
oSecond shift – after working in the paid labour force, they then have to pick up a second shift at home and
complete unpaid labour there (i.e. cooking, cleaning, etc.)
Double ghetto – women work in the pink collar ghetto and the domestic ghetto of unpaid labour
oStructural functionalism:
oGendered practices promote gender stability – because women are more vulnerable, they need protection for
reproduction
oMaintaining boundaries in gender = maintaining the status quo
oWomen do private realm (unpaid labour) + expressive (relational) tasks
oMen do public realm (paid labour) + instrumental tasks
oThese complimentary roles allow for the survival of both the family and society.
oSymbolic Interactionism:
oStudies the micro level, everyday behaviour
Children learn gender through socialization
Men more likely to change topics in a conversation, interrupt women, and ignore women
oMarxism/Conflict Theory:
oEngels: women’s position in the family likened to oppressed working class – both are viewed as property
Women were regarded not as ‘persons’ until 1928 and as property until 1985 in Canada
oModern socialists: industrialization = greater gender inequality than earlier economic systems
oCult of domesticity: in the Victorian culture, women had to be perfect and were trained to behave in specific
ways, which worsened the division
oDouble jeopardy: discrimination on the grounds of gender and ethnicity/culture (i.e. women of the Sikh minority
in Canada receive double discrimination)
oMultiple jeopardy: discrimination on the grounds of class, age, disability, education, gender, and/or
ethnicity/culture
oFeminism:
oAdvocacy of social equality for men and women – opposition to patriarchy and sexism
oGender is interconnected with class, race, sexual orientation and disability to produce multiple layers of
inequality and discrimination (leading to a difference in access to resources)
oTough Guise – short documentary:
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