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[Sociology 2140] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 149 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2140
Professor
Gale Cassidy
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Sociology 2140
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Tuesday, November 22nd
Crime & Violence
Measuring crime
-failure to report crime- hard to get a handle on how much crime there is ; victimization studies
are more reliable then number of people that reported crime
-data collection issues
-interests of politicians and groups- e.g. spending more or less on crime; how much crime is
actually enforced
Is crime in Canada increasing or decreasing clip?
Perception is that crime rates are going up, but more crime is being reported on television
giving us that perception
Only 1/3 of crime is reported to police
Concerned about retribution
Police reported crime is down however mainly due to less minor crimes which are
likely not reported- violent crimes are up
If have multiple charges only counted as 1 crime only most serious incident reported
Why the Growing concern with Gangs and Gang Activities
An actual or “real” increase in gangs and gang activity
Increased media coverage of gang violence
Increased gang imagery in popular culture
The court may look at:
If they use a name, word, symbol, or other representation that identifies, or is associated
with, that criminal organization
If they frequently associate with any of the persons who constitue the criminal
organization
If they receive any benefit from the criminal organization
If they repetedly engage in activities at the instruction of any of the persons who
constitute the criminal organization
Definitiional issues:
Number of members- 3 or more
Stability, consistency, or duration
Common identifiers- tatoos, names, colours, territory, initation rituals
Leadership and hierarchy
Involvement in criminal activity
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Types of Gangs:
Criminal gangs- operate like a business
Conflict gangs- provide a sense of belonging and identity- tend to be younger than
criminal gangs- tend to fight with other gangs- not as organized as criminal gangs about
honor revenge, not backing down e.g. drive by shootings
Retreatist gangs: withdrawl to the fringes of society- commit petty crimes, pimping; aren’t
as threatening as other 2
Reasons for leaving a gang:
Fear of violence
Arrest- contact with the criminal justice system
Family pressure
Getting older
Intimate partners/children
Feeling of remorse/need for redemption
Sex trade: Women have a place to stay via sleeping with the guy, uneven statistics between men
and women
Prostitution: is the sale of sexual services of oneself or another, for money or goods and without
emotional attachment
Prostitution: worlds oldest profession, 4000 years- neither totally accepted or condemned, early
christians tolerated, attempts made to abolish it, feminists are divided
Prostitution in Canada: not illegal in Canada but related activities are,
The Canadian Criminal Code: refers to a common bawdy house, a place that is kept or resorted
to by one or more persons for the practice of prostitution or indecency
Extent of prostitution: no reliable estimates, activity is quasi-legal and hidden
Demographics: women between the ages of 17 and 24, Runaways who left home/thrown out due
to sexual abuse or other family problems, lower income, african american and aboriginal women
Nordic model: punish buyers (charged) - Iceland, Sweden, Norway
New Zealand model: decriminalize sex work, treats it like work ( not legal but you don’t get
charged)
Human trafficking: extent is difficult to assess, estimate 75% of human trafficking is is south
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