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Sociology 2151A/B
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Urban DevelopmentLec notes Sep 21 2011Birth of the original city urbanizationDomestication of farminglivestockThis infant form of cities was the start of urbanizationNomads settled in very small groupshardly a city at this pointUrbanismbeginning of different lifestyle than rural oCan exist independently of urbanization and vice versaoGeographically and populace can be large but people live in traditional lifestyles like a village Cairo EgyptoCan also be relatively small in nature but still lives an urban lifestyleUrban EcologyInteraction between city and people who live there4 factorsoPopulationIncreasingdensities increase as geography stays the sameBehaviour becomes modified as proximity is reducedSociodemographic characteristicsage occupation sex etcoOrganizationAs populations grow they change in how they are organizedOver time rules become more thorough and complexorganized by hierarchical social structures Socioeconomic stratification SESGrowing middle class in contrast to early societies where there was generally one indiv who ruled an areaMultiple classes exist today many different classesoEnvironmentPhysical environmentland water resources foodWater most important resourceHow much food and water are available depict how long a pop will surviveFirst cities to expand were on major waterwaysoTechnologyAdvancing the distributions of water plumbing irrigation allows for populations to growSubsistence agriculture vs crop surplus ability to store for future and tradeSocial complexity increasesHouses become more permanentmudstone structures rather than more susceptible light structuresMore and more material possessions requires more occupational specializationBeginning of Family productionChanges in size of familiesmulti generational family begins extended kinship networkAll living in same buildingvillageareaPrimogeniturehanding down of inheritance to eldest and dividing up between other kinshipsome get mostlots some get noneStratification is already beginning oOccupational land resource inheritanceCitys basic structureCrossroads protected by a wallPeople seek this refuge for protection and commerceExisting communities are growing and expanding within the boundariesShift from hunter gatherer to urban dweller happened somewhere in northern Africa or middle east roughly 810000y agoCharacteristics that differentiate the first cities from the predecessors1PermanencyaAround for a long time with many people living in close proximity 10000 or so2Non agricultural specialistsaOccupational stratification of those not involved in farmingbExchanges of goods and services beginsearly commerce for those who need different things to survive3Taxation and capital accumulationaDidnt start off as money began as a portion of their productioncrops produced goods4Public buildingsaTemples to gods stadiums gamesentertainment structures circus maximus also small scale storage of excess crops water resources5A ruling classaRuleregulation makers priest king and queenpart of occupation stratification6Writing and numbersaRecord keeping early administrative duties govt purposes7Predictive sciencesaAgronomywhen to plant how to plant what to plantbAstronomycalendar configurationimportant for farmingritualscGeometryengineeringconstruction8Art aEmbellishments of buildings tools9TradeaFood raw materials produced goodsoccupational stratification10Residential citizenshipaCertain rights for those who existed within the boundaries of the citybNot simply sanguine rights people were afforded rights simply for living in the areaUrban evolutionNot always increasing incrementally or exponentiallyFluctuates up and down in relation to immigration and emigration for different reasons1800s is industrial revolutionoMajor world cities now begin to increase exponentiallyFirst world was growing fastest up until about 10 years agooBiggest cities are now mostly impoverished areas and continue to growPatterns of POET constantly reappearingbe aware of changes that lead to fluctuations
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