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Sociology 2267A/B Study Guide - Bandura, Ritualism In The Church Of England, Young Offenders Act

Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Daphne Heywood

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Youth crime has historically been a public issue…
- ex from bell text we learn that back in the 17th century colonial administrators were writing that children
were so lawless that once they could carry a gun….
Histocial Constrction of childhood and youth
- the phenomenon of childhood is a fairly recent modern invention…did not exist in feudal times
- children were so defined until age 7 when they supposedly could identify right frim wrong and then rested
as adults
- intrucution of priniting press in the 15th century made access to reading and literacy possible…parents
began seeking schooling for offspring
- this new model of parenting and the social regulation involved in schooling gave rise to new ideas about
the life course
- 19th century: children no longer small adults
they had to be socialized into societal norms and values through the strict discipline of schooling. Thus
differential treatment of children is a 19th century phenomenon
- parens patriae: they king was the :father” of the nation and could assume guardianship of the offspring of
the many poor peasants whose pverty encouraged them to wonder the streets and engage in petty theft or
other acts of rebellion or deviance
- moral regulation… from the 19th century the moral regulation of children and youth has been monitored by
the state. Common law used to establish moral and legal authority over the behaviour of young people and
to hold their parents responsible
Who are the “Delinquents”?
- in the middle ages these were the children of the poor, and to some extent this presumption still applies.
The term is used mostly in reference to those who resist the dominant norms, especially poor immigrants,
minority youth and the socially disadvantaged
Defining a Juvenile Deliquent
- Canada’s earliest regulation applied to youth crime actually used the term “delinquent”. Shelden (2206)
tellus us that it derived from two sitict

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failure to do something and some one who is maliable
From “the Junvenile Delinquent Act, Canada, 1908
Juvinle delinquent means any child who violated any provision of the criminal code or any federal or
provincial statue or of any by-law or ordinance of any municipality, or who is guilty of sexual immorality or
any …………………
1990’s immigrant youth problem
in the mid-1800s poor orphaned and destitute children sent from Britain to Canada as indentured servants
juvenile prostitution was rampant
Old World Legal Codes and Traditions cause new world problems
Canadian admins brought their legal coes to the NEW World thus making it possible to charge children 7-
Changing Role for Youth..
New France mostly rural, so children could be seen as
Majority of youth crime reported…
- known through prison reports
- youth were incarcerated for minor offences such as petty theft
- after confederation the proportion of youth in jails declined somewhat, especially girls
Waid, Strays and Strret Arabs

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By mid 1800s urban middle class began to express concern about the morality of the poor. Unemployment,
destitution forced many
rehabilitative philosophy
- an era of social reform followed. Reformers basically sought to overcome the evils of crime with good.
The philosophy of these reformers (the children savers) encouraged youth legislation
Dispelling the myths about youth crime
Since the 1800s youth have been the scapegoats for many crimes they moddelled for adults
The media are often guilty of misleading the public about the extent and nature of youth crime
3 reasons cuted for failure from development psychology
wude range of development justifications
developmental changes gradual and vary with the individual
determining levels of culpability is a moral judgement; not based on empirical evidence
Canada’s youth laws
Juvenile delinquents acts
prior ro the JDA young offenders were treated much like adults – they were held with adults whitle awaiting
trial and received the same senences as adults. Under the avt a youth was treated “not as a criminal, but as
a misdirected and misguided child.
Youths were not charged with specific offences but with delinquency. Sentencing was lieft to the discretion
of the judge ans was based on the rehabilitation of the offender. Broad guidleines
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