Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 1
Chapters 4 & 7: Constructing Gender Legend
It is important to remember that gender is achieved and learned, and sex is ascribedTopics Sex is based
on our physiological differences. Vocabulary
Castor Semenya World athlete that had a debate if she was female because she People kept
winning. She went through testing and was still able to compete.
Becoming Our Sex
Sex is natural and biologically determined, but 1-3% of babies are born intersexed, which is seen as a disorder and
something that needs to be fixed. As so, 90% of intersexed people turn female.
Gender is a social category and a set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture and over time within a
• Gender Norms: Rules specifying appropriate behaviour for each gender
• Gender Scripts: We know how to behave based on our gender
• “Cis-Gender”: people actively perceiving your gender (biological sex matches your gender presentation.
Sex-Codes: Premarital Sexual Standards
• Sex codes regulate sexual behaviour outside of marriage.
• Today, majority of people tolerate premarital sex.
• How people accept and judge these standards:
1. Abstinence Standard: forbids premarital sex
2. Double Standard: expects virginity for females
3. Love Standard: Physical expression when love and affection are present
4. Fun Standard: giving and receiving tool of pleasure
• Reisman says that there is a shift of attitudes towards sexuality:
1. Egalitarian Conservative: less respect for both
2. Egalitarian Libertarians: no respect lost
3. Traditional Double Standard: respect lost for females
4. Reverse Double Standards: respect lost for males
Becoming our Gender
Gender Identity (18 months to three years): powerful aspect of self identity, which develops in accordance with the
individuals gender and the social definitions of that gender within the larger gendered order. This develops in culture, and
you have an achieved status and a master status.
Gender Performance: We are always performing a gender identity your achieved status becomes a mastered status,
which you achieve after three years. The achieved status happens from 18 months to three years.
Gendered order is a set of structural relations through which people are treated differently.
Patriarchy is a system of dominance in which cultural, political and economic structures have been created by men and
are maintained for the benefit of men as a group.
Gendered intensification is a process by which individuals are influenced to hyper-differentiate themselves from the
other gender in terms of appearance and behaviour.
• This is perpetuated by mass media and advertising in a pursuit for money
• Adolescence is the key period of this identity manipulation
• Strong psychological difference between males/females due to this
o 20% of females have an eating disorder and 4/5 people view food as the enemy
o There is an implicit message sent out to males for having a fear of gay or feminine ways
• Halloween costume video – there is more wiggle room for girls Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 2
Effects of Gender Intensification
1. Ill prepares both men and women for the roles that they will later perform
2. Impossible standards lead to low self esteem and high dissatisfaction
3. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship and perpetuates gender inequality
(equality=good but makes intensification more rigid)
Gendered stereotyping occurs when men and women are treated in a different way due to their gender.
Persistence of Beliefs about Gendered Differences
• Even when there is a statistically significant difference between males and females, for most characteristics, there
is more similarity than difference between the genders.
• Most human characteristics fall into a normal distribution where a small proportion of people rate much owner,
but most people fall somewhere in the middle.
The Bell Curve
Even when gendered differences exist between males and females, the portion of the two bell curves that overlap is much
greater than the portion that is distinctive to either gender.
Persistence of Gender
1. Gender schemas tend to shape the way we notice, interpret and remember information according to our
expectation about genders
2. Social roles for making males and females enhance or
suppress different capabilities
3. Differential gender socialization leads males and
females to develop different skills and attitudes which
leads to different behaviours – the difference in
behaviour seem to confirm the
appropriateness of the different roles – “Naturalization
Social Status and social roles that men and women occupy in society.
• Gender Stereotyping leads to social attitudes about the correct gender roles for men and women, which often
leads to different statuses.
• An individuals place in society is largely based on the value we place on their role in the division of labor – the
private domain vs. the public domain
• In 2009, women outnumbered men in the labor force for the first time
• 28% of women and 11% of men work in part-time
• Female occupational ghettos remain
• Women receive 58% of university degrees
• Women still do most of the unpaid work at home
• Reasons for the gendered wage gap:
o Human Capital Factors: education, experience, tenure, field of study
o Demographic Factors: Marital status and children
o Job Characteristics: occupational segregation, industries, type of work, size of establishment
▪ Discriminations = 38%
o Feminization of Poverty Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 3
Housework: Who does how much? 78% of household chores are done by females.
• Gendered practices (e.g. division of labor) promote social stability: woman’s vulnerability needs protecting for
o Women do private realm and expressive tasks, and men do public realm instrumental tasks.
o But, 16% of families re lone-parent, in which many women have a double shift and some men are
• Study micro level of everyday behaviour, e.g. research
o Men are more likely than women to:
▪ Change topics of conversation
▪ Ignore topics of conversation chosen by women
▪ Minimize ideas of women
▪ Interrupt women
• Engles: women’s position in family likened to oppressed working class: both viewed as property
• Modern Socialists: industrialization resulted in greater gender inequality than earlier economic systems
• Victorian culture worsened division – “cult of domesticity”
• Double jeopardy and multiple jeopardy
• Advocacy of social equality for men and women, in oppression to patriarchy and sexism
• Gender is interconnected with class, race, and sexual orientation and disability to produce multiple layers of
inequality and discrimination
• Global Feminism: differences in power, material resources, geographies and histories.
Chapter 10: Inventing the Family
Basic Concepts and Vocabulary
Family: a social institution that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and rising of children.
Kinship: social bond based on blood, marriage or adoption
Family unit: defined as two or more people who are related by blood, adoption, marriage or some other form of extended
commitment and who reside together – often constructed around marriage
Nuclear Family: one or two parents and their unmarried children – this represents the SNAF< but only 31.9% of
consensus families account for this.
Extended Family: nuclear family plus other kin
Endogamy: Marriage between people from the same social category.
• Extreme example of this is consanguine marriage, in which cousins marry cousins
Exogamy: marriage between people of different social categories. Endogamy and exogamy are more rules that are
enforced by their culture than they are a choice.
Propinquity: Spatial proximity- you finding a partner that lives in your area (60% of us will marry someone that lives 20
blocks from us). Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 4
Homogamy: People marrying people like themselves regarding religion, ethnicity, education, etc.
• Even in a culture with choice, most people fall in love with others of the same age, race, religion and social class.
• All societies tend to arrange marriage in a way that promotes homogamy
• Similar physical, psychological or social characteristics
Heterogamy: Marriage between people who are dissimilar in some important regard such as religion, ethnicity, social
class, personality or age. Homogamy and Heterogamy are about choice – they’re more personal.
Types of Descent
• All forms of marriage determine a system of descent so kinship can be determined and inheritance rates
Descent: The way in which people trace kinship over generations
Bilateral: Decent traced through both sides of the family. This is often found in societies with greater gender equality,
and that are more modern.
Patrilineal: Descent is traced through the father’s side
Matrilineal: Descent is traced through the mother’s side. In this system, women still don’t own property so inheritance
may still be traced in a patrilineal manner.
The presence of polygyny, patrilocality, and patrilineal descent affect the process of patriarchy universally.
Patrilocality: Married couple lives with or near the husband’s family
Matrilocality: Married couple lives with or near the wife’s family
Neolocailty: The married couple lives alone. This is more popular in postindustrial societies, however most newly weds
have lived with one or more sets of parents for financial support.
Marriage and Arrangement
• 48.5% of Canadians over 15 are married (no longer the majority or the 1 time)
o Due to shift patterns, laws, divorce rates, norms around should should marry who
o Marriage is one of the most profound way people are controlled by the law – connected to social
• Nicholas Ceausesau – Romanian who engaged in social engineering, controlled contraception and made abortion
• Textbook highlights how we define societies and how this influences trends and norms
• Industrial society laws prescribe monogamy: one adult marrying another (includes same sex)
o Serial monogamy: pattern of marriage, divorce, marriage, divorce, etc.
Polygamy: marriage that unites three or more
• Polygyny: one man with two or more woman
o Economic cost needs to be considered (very expensive). Wintson Blackmore Lives in Creston Valley
with 26 wives and 80 kids. Practicing polygamy without government interruption, and rather than
changing the Charter on religious grounds they charged him with human trafficking of people across the
boarder from Utah to BC.
• Polyandry: One woman and two or more men. Very rare and occurs in societies where men outnumber women.
o Reduces the number of children, allowing them to keep the same amount of land without dividing it up.
Common in Tibet as they had mited land for agriculture.
• Polyamory: multiple lovers with mutual consent – “free for all.”
o 0.5%-3.5% of the population engages in this.
• Institutional Convergence: pattern is becoming the same around the worl which is monogamy, as polygamy is
• Cultural practices support two key facts of life:
1. Supporting men and children whether there are an equal number of men and women.
2. Lower income societies permit polygamy. Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 5
Polygamy: What other religions say…
Scripturally: In Practice:
Practiced in the oldest stories of the Torah, though someBanned among Western Jews circa A.D. 1000. Not
passages warn of its dangers. Other texts describe banned by other Jewish communities but unheard of,
monogamy as the model of divine harmony. Legally banned in Israel.
Scripturally: In Practice:
St. Paul endorses marriage between one man and one Not tolerated since ancient times, in line with Roman law.
woman in Corinthians. Jesus cites Adam and Eve to explainSerial monogamy is tolerated in many countries.
the sacredness of monogamous marriage.
Scripturally: In Practice:
The Koran, circa 1650 allows men to have up to four wivesStill permitted by Islamic law. Practiced among the
(though Muhammad had many more), as long as they treat wealthy in countries where it is legal, primarily in Africa
all the wives equally. and the Middle East.
Marriage Rates in Canada
• Average age for marriage is 34
• 28 for women
• Common law rates are going up and marriage rates are going down
• More people are childless, due to both infertility and choice
o 40% of infertility is due to the male, while 30% is due to the female
o STD’s are a primary cause
Family Types in Canada
Couple families: married (67%) and common law (16.7%)
We also have lone parents (16.3%), female lone parents (80% of lone parents are females, by they account for 13.0% of
families), same sex couples (0.8%), mixed unions (4.0%) and step-families (12.6%).
The sharing of a household by unmarried people. Half of the people who cohabitate will end up getting married.
Kiernan says that there are four stages in use
1. Prelude to marriage
2. Probationary period (living with your partner)
3. Make socially acceptable (possibly through kids)
4. Substitute to marriage
• Many young people are staying at home (42.3% of 20-29 year olds)
• Boomerang generation – children who have left home and returned – majority are men. 24% of people do this in
their late 20’s.
• Higher probability of divorce with early marriage and people who get remarried.
• Occurs because exchanges are unrewarding
• Rates are rising, divorce is easier to obtain. Prior to 1968 divorce took a long time. Trudeau made divorce easier
for those with abusive relations. In 1985 the waiting period was reduced to one year.
• Cheaters are usually doomed to fail and are a larger factor in uxoricide (murdering your wife).
• 80% of divorced people will remarry, often leading to blended families
• Samuel Johnson says that since marriage didn’t work the first time, many people want to try it again with
someone else. Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 6
Children and Parenting Styles
Parental Responsiveness (love, warmth, nurturance)
Parental Demandingness (discipline and control)
Four types of parenting:
Parenting in Other Societies
• Authoritative parenting style is rare in non-Western cultures.
o Obeyed without question or explanation
o Greater inherent authority
o No reasons
• Traditional Parenting – typical in cultures. Responsiveness and demandingness are higher
Lone Parenting Families
1961 Since 1980’s (2011)
Widowhood 62% 51%
Never-married 3% 32%
Separated/divorced 35% 17%
The family performs several vital tasks:
2. Regulation of sexual activity
3. Social placement
4. Material and emotional security
• Society depends on families
Social Conflict Analysis
Family perpetuates social inequality
1. Property and inheritance
3. Racial and ethnic inequality
• Family plays a role in social stratification
• Explores how individuals shape and experience
• Family living offers an opportunity for intimacy
• Family members share activities and build emotional
• Courtship and marriage may be seen as forms of negotiation
• Family perpetrator of gender roles
• Rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present automatically a cause for concern
Future Change and Continuity Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 7
• Marriage not likely to go out of style
• Biggest change: liberation of gender roles and unlinking of gender and caring
• Women work and men care for children more
• Within a decade, 2 to 3% of births are the result of NRT’s.
Domestic Violence Lecture
Domestic Violence: any use of physical or sexual force, actual or threatened, in an intimate relationship, including
emotional/psychological abuse or harassing behaviour.
• More women are abused than men, although men do not express it as much
• 40% of marriages children hear violence occurring within the household
• 1 in every 3 men will abuse their partner
• 6% of men and 7% of women have been sexually abused
Intimate Relationship: Includes those between opposite and same sex partners. They vary in duration and legal formality
and include current and former dating, common law and married couples.
The Dynamics of an Abusive Relationship
• Tends to have cyclical pattern, meaning most victims experience domestic assault over and over again.
• Cycle of violence may vary in length, but there is three distinct phases to the domestic style
1. The tension building phase
2. The battering phase
3. The manipulation phase
The Tension Building Phase
• Victim – slapping, shoving or tripping
• Psychological abuse increases
• The victim is powerless and fearful
• Tries to pacify partner and avert a violent incident
• Blames herself for not preventing the assault
• Assaulter blames the victim for “provoking” assault
The Battering Phase
• Few minutes to several days
• Visible injuries or none at all
• Sometimes an argument precedes an assault
• Some attacks while sleeping or eating
• Victim often dazed or immobilized by fear of shock
• May include a sexual assault
The Manipulation Phase
• Assaulter may show remorse and kindness in an attempt to hold onto him or her Sociology 1020 Test Two Review 8
• Assaulter may blame it on external pressures or on victim
• Victim made to feel guilty
• Victim reassured by the false promises
• This part of the cycle entraps the victim
• In some relationships, this phase may be non-existent or phased out over time
Chapter 5: Media
Media increases social cohesion (strong agent of socialization). It is an enforced of social norms and makes an example of
those who deviate from said norms. Media promotes consumption, which supports the economy. Advertising actually