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Sociology 2240E Lecture Notes.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2240E
Charles Levine

2240E CLASS NOTES Difference between fact claims and ought claims Rationalitylinking means to ends Reasonjudgment about whether or not one ought to do what one can doEnlightenment periodif rationality and reason were used properly it would save everyoneo Men such as Rousseau for example had many ideas to change the world Rousseau talks about the rights of men and how women were inferior and powerless Rousseau was conceptualizing the systems in society by doing thiso Wollstonecraft tears apart Rousseau for womens rights System vs the interacting person The more society develops the more insensitive it is to who you are Essay bookso Durkheim The Division of Labor in Society Book One Interested in how society evolveswhat it is and how it changes Social solidarityhow does society manage to be stable Thinks we are animals without the social therefore if it isnt working properly we revert to animal instincts God is societycreated by society so it can value itselfo Strategy that society uses to assert itself as a sacred entity We achieve solidarity by dividing labour Mechanical to organic solidarityo Durkheim The Division of Labor in Society Book Three Abnormal conditions of social solidarity Says society hasnt quite gotten to where it should be Forced division of labourneed to create equal opportunity in the occupational area and the fact that it doesnt yet exist Challenging Karl Marxo Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of CapitalismThinks theres a relationship between religion and capitalism Modern western capitalism Claims it wouldnt have happened if it hadnt been for John Calvin and Martin Luther protesting against the church Protestants started to believe they were here for a purpose Here to fulfill responsibilitiesvery hard working laziness not tolerated Dont spend save Constructs a new kind of sociologyqualitative methodology o Karl Marx Early and Selected Writings Oppression suppression and unequal distribution of power Explains exploitation alienation production etc Everyone is a function of moneypower Capitalism cannot persistnot logicalo Mead On Social Psychology Father of Symbolic Interactionism Tries to understand why and how our minds self concept and society coexist Reflections of the same thingmanipulation and articulation of symbols language Raises the problemin what sense are we free In what sense are we autonomous THEORY TEMPLATECognitive templatea way of thinking Involves 67 questions that any theorist has to answer if they are going to think or write social theoryo Most social theorists dont even know they have answered themo These questions are deep structures of cognitiono Things we know and think of without being awareo Classificationcertain objects should be in the same categoryEquality operationputting objects or people into the same category Ex 2 red pens and 2 green pens can be divided into categories of colour regardless of their size or shape etc Questions o 1 What is society People begin to internalize norms and values and therefore create social order and solidaritythis generates a social systemCulturea system of norms and values that gets transmitted through the actions of speaking persons and symbols ex Our flagA culture is made up of institutionsInstitutionorganizations and a commitment to certain values Ex Education military government etc What keeps all of the institutions together is not just culture but modes of interdependence everything working together within the cultureGreater than the sum of its partsits the relationship among the parts that are equally important This system is based on biology if one part in the human body fails the rest fails Each person is a role occupants within these institutionso If you fail to play these roles you become a deviant Organicistexplicitly intend to use a biological metaphor in order to understand societyAtomistsis an organism with one exception is an organism most of the time under certain circumstances however individuals can psychologically distance themselves from the social in order to critically evaluate it Interested in what are the circumstances that stimulate people to do this and how do they do it Reflexivitypsychologically distancing people make who they were an object to their own perception o Ex If someone were to be given 1 billion dollars they would question whether they should remain a student or not o This is stimulated when something doesnt seem right Nature of what comes out of reflexivity Moral cannot be differentiated from conformity Atomists say morality exists in the minds of persons therefore it only exists under one circumstance when the mind of a person perceives a dilemma ex Unfairness otherwise it is not present all the time We access it when we need to When you sense a dilemma you make a moral judgment of what is right and wrong Universally valid points of viewo 2What is human nature Do we have instincts What are instincts and WGAS who gives a shit If something is an instinct it has to be present in every member of the species but to be logically rigid it has to be immutable cannot be changed however can be destroyed Eating will to survive breathing etc NurtureDispositionsanother way of saying instinctstrue by definition Some sociologists say we are egocentricself interested greedy smart and dumb by nature However one sociologist says not logical to say that they are these things by nature Under what circumstances are they these things under what circumstances would they not be these thingso Environment changes things nurture
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