Art History Final Exam Notes second half

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Western University
Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Cody Barteet

13-04-19 4:54 AM Starry Night -These are all very evident features of -Vincent Van Gogh, 1889 expressionism depicted within Starry -Painted the year before he committed Night suicide, inside an asylum -Communicated his feelings about the The Vision after the Sermon or Jacob electrifying vastness of the universe, filled Wrestling with the Angel with whirling and exploding stars and -Gauguin, 1888 galaxies of stars, the earth and humanity - Broke with the Impressionists’ studies of huddling beneath it. minutely contrasted hues because he -Church is a symbol of his conflict with believed that color above all must be religion expressive and that the artist’s power to -Although very personal depiction, but determine the colors in a painting was a also corresponds with the constellation central element of creativity and trees as it is seen through the asylum - As opposed to Van Gogh’s thick strokes, window, but more dramatic and turbulent Gauguin’s color areas appear flat ter, often brushstroke that expresses depression visually dissolving into abstract patches or -“ Why, I ask myself, shouldn’t the shining patterns. He used sharp shapes and dots of the sky be as accessible as the lines, strong contrasting colours black dots on the map of France? Just as -Painted Breton praying devotedly as we take the train to get to Tarascon or Jacob wrestled with an angel Rouen, we take death to reach a star.” -His interest in Japanese prints and - Van Gogh communicated the “madness” stained glass is evident from the way of the place by selecting vivid hues whose shapes were used in his painting juxtaposition augmented their inten sity. His insistence on the expressive values of Sunday Afternoon at Grande Jette color led him to develop a corresponding -George Seurat, 1886 expressiveness in his paint application. -Many artists were dissatisfied with the - He often moved the brush vehemently Salon’s conservative ways, and so they back and forth or at right angles, giving a held their own art exhibition; Dealers textile like effect, even squeezing dots or promoted them aggressively streaks directly onto his canvas from his - His paintings were also Impressionist paint tube. This bold, almost slap dash subjects, as seen in this painting, a attack enhanced the inten sity of his recreational setting and an exploration of colors. lighting and shadows -Less concerned with the recording of immediate color sensations than he was with their careful and systematic - Achieved a remarkable feat: presenting organization into a new kind of pictorial the viewer with two-dimensional and order based on calculation of art theories three-dimensional images simultaneously. -This is a theory under impressionism that is called pointillism: applies these pure The Cry component colors to the canvas in tiny -Munch, 1893 dots (points) or daubs. Thus, the shapes, - The task of Symbolist visual and verbal figures, and spaces in the image become artists was not to see things but to see totally comprehensible only from a through them to a significance and reality distance, when the viewer’s eye blends far deeper than what superficial the many pigment dots appearance gave - Reveals Seurat’s recognition of the - The image—a man standing on a bridge tenuous and shifting social and class or jetty in a landscape—comes from the relationships at the time. Seurat’s painting real world, but Munch’s treatment of the captures public life on a Sunday —a image departs makes it look unreal congregation of people from various - The Scream evokes a visceral, classes, from the sleevele ss worker emotional response from the viewer lounging in the left foreground to the because of the painter’s dramatic middle-class man and woman seated next presentation, a significant feature of to him symbolism art -The man in the foreground, simplified to The Basket of Apples almost skeletal form, emits a primal - Cézanne, 1895 scream. The landscape’s sweepi ng -Cézanne captured the solidity of each curvilinear lines reiterate the curvilinear object by juxtaposing color patches, shape of the mouth and head, almost like worked with still life very slowly an echo, as the cry seems to reverberate -His interest in the study of volume and through the setting solidity is evident in the painting—the - “alone, trembling with anguish, I became table edges are discontinuous, and aware of the vast, infinite cry of nature” :’( various objects seem to be depicted from different vantage points Casa Mila in Barcelona -A study of 3 dimensional space -Antonia Gaudi, 1907 -Although the use of techniques allowed - The new art synthesize all the arts in a things to look a little flat, there is still a determined attempt to create a rt based on strong sense of space and depth in the natural forms that could be mas s- painting that can not be ignored produced for a large audience - He conceived a building as a whole and meet the functional and symbolic needs of molded it almost as a sculptor might its users shape a figure from clay, wondrously free- form mass wrapped around a street Red Room (Harmony in Red) corner -Matisse, 2908-1909 th -Design reflect the excitement that swept - During the early 20 century, avant- Spain following the 1879 discovery of garde artists searched for new definitions Paleolithic cave paintings at Altamira. of art in a changed world. Matisse and the -Casa Milá is the spiritual kin of early - Fauves used bold colors as the primary 20th-century Expressionist painting and means of conveying feeling in a liberating sculpture way - They produced paintings with rich Carson , Pirie, Scott Building surface textures, lively lin ear patterns, -Sullivan 1899-1904 and, above all, bold colors startling - New technologies and the changing contrasts of vermilion and emerald green needs of industrialized societ y and of cerulean blue and vivi d orange held transformed Western architecture in the together by sweeping brushstrokes late 19th century. -“ I have before me a cupboard; it gives -Sullivan was a pioneer in designing the me a sensation of vivid red, and I pu t first metal, stone, and glass skyscrapers down a red which satisfies me.” >:/ in the States; these buildings depicted - The table and wall seem to merge late-19th-century commerce with because they are the same color and technological developments to create have identical patter ning. light-filled, well-ventilated office buildings -Such decoration served to connect Street Dresden commerce and culture and imbued these -Kirchner, 1908 white-collar workspaces with a sense of - German Expressionist paintings feature refinement and taste (business ppl are clashing colors, disquieting figures , and artzy too! <3) perspectival distortions , with Kirchner at - Used a minimal structural steel skeleton the forefront to created wide open, illuminated open - Provides a glimpse into the
frenzied spaces, a good example of late 19 th urban activity of a bustling
German city century architecture before World War I - Revealed his profound understanding of - Kirchner’s perspectival distortions, the maturing consumer economy and disquieting figures, and color choices tailored the Chicago department store to reflect the influence of the work of Edvard Munch, who made similar expressive use speed and dynamism of modern of formal elements in The Scream technology -Emphasis on speed and force , and Improvisation 28 explored cubism themes in depth -Kandinsky, 1912 -He wrote “a translation, in plaster, bronze, -Scientific advancement and social glass, wood or any other material, of structure changes was reflected in art those atmospheric planes which bind and -Scientific discoveries constituted a intersect things. . . . Let’s proclaim the changed view of physical nature and absolute and complete abolition of fi nite contributed to the growing interest in lines and contentment” abstraction, as opposed to the mimetic -His own sculpture reflected these representation of the world, among early- principals he mentioned 20th-century artists like Kandinsky - Science convinced him that material Fountain objects had no real substance. He was -Marcel Duchamp 1917 (second version one of the first painters to explore 1950) complete abstraction in his canvases. -Central artist of New York Dada but was also active in Paris ; Dada persistently Les Demoiselles d’Avignon presented staggering challenges to artistic -Picasso, 1907 conventions - Absorbed in the problem of finding a new - Emerged, in large part, in reaction to way to represent the five female figures in what many of these artists saw as nothing their interior space. Instead of depicting more than an insane spectacle of the figures as continuous volumes; he collective homicide fractured their shapes and interwove them - The Dadaists celebrated the with the equally jagged planes that spontaneous and intuitive, often represent drapery and empty space incorporating found objects in their -Flattened out 3D space with 2D shapes, artworks abandoned the idea of perspective - Duchamp’s “readymade” sculptures -Early development of cubism were mass-produced objects that the Dada artist modified. In Fountain, he Unique Forms of Continuity in Space conferred the status of art on a urinal and -Boccioni, 1913 forced people to see the object in a new - Part of the futurist movement, they also light called for radical innovation in the arts. Of particular interest to the Futurists were the Cadeau -Man Ray, 1921 -The discrepancy between the painted - The art scene in America before the briar pipe and his caption, “This is not a establishment of a significant and pipe,” challenges the viewer’s reliance on consistent dialogue with European the conscious and the rational in the modernists was, of course, quite varied reading of visual art -But they still had to present what was -Makes the viewer reflection on the power realistic and so the style paralleled French of art and it’s social influence on our realism perception of what is real -With characteristic Dada humor, the American artist Man Ray equipped a Guernica laundry iron with a row of wicked-looking -Pablo Picasso, 1937 spikes, subverting its proper function of - Spanish Republican government- in-exile smoothing and pressing in Paris asked Picasso to produce a major - Incorporating found objects in his work for the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris paintings, sculptures, movies, and International Exposition photographs. He used chance and the -He accepted the work when Guernica dislocation of ordinary things from their was destroyed by Nazi bombs and 7000 everyday settings to surprise his viewers people were killed, and the work was a into new awareness mural dedicated to them -These are all his personal work, usually - The collected images in Guernica he worked as a graphic designer and a combine to create a visceral outcry of portrait photographer human grief - Picasso used Cubist techniques, The Treachery of Images especially the fragmentation of objects -Rene Magritte, 1928-1929 and dislocation of anatomical features, to - With the publication in France of the First expressive effect in this condemnation of Surrealist Manifesto, most of the artists the Nazi; this Cubist fragmentation gave associated with Dada joined the visual form to the horror —the dissections Surrealism movement and its de termined and contortions of the human form exploration of ways to express in art the paralleled what happened to them in real world of dreams and the unconscious life -Magritte expressed in exemplary fashion - Revealed an artist’s political commitment the Surrealist idea and method—the and his awareness of the power of art dreamlike dissociation of image and (The General that led the bombing was a meaning man named Franco and Picasso wouldn’t let the work be exhibited until he died.) with one another to raise the tallest Villa Savoye skyscrapers in the biggest cities -La Corbusier, 1929 -Built up of diminishing fan shapes, the - Simple geometric aesthetic that Gropius spire glitters triumphantly in the sky, a and Mies van der Rohe developed resplendent crown honoring the business became known as the International Style achievements of the great auto - Trained in Paris and Berlin, Le Corbusier manufacturer (Of course, they were very was also a painter, but he had greater lavish before fore the Great Depression influence as an architect came.) - Invert the traditional practice of placing light architectural elements above heavy Fallingwater ones and to eliminate weight-bearing -Frank Lloyd Wright, 1936 -1939 walls on the ground story in the Villa - The Kaufmann House, nicknamed Savoye “Fallingwater” was one of Wright ’s - Believed the basic physical and expansive suburban and country homes psychological needs of every human - Has become an icon of modernist being were sun, space, and vegetation architectural design; ever since the combined with controlled temperature, completion of this residence, architects good ventilation, and insulation and noise and the public alike have marveled at the proof, and that’s what he emphasized on fluid interplay between interior and exterior in his design -Wright sought to incorporate the structure more fully into the site, thereby ensuring a Chrysler Building of NYC fluid, dynamic exchange between the -William van Alen, 1928 -1930 interior of the house and the natural -America also embraced the new environment outside European architecture, particularly the -Hence, rather than build the house Bauhaus style, which rejected ornament overlooking or next to the waterfall, Wright of any kind, this movement was called Art decided to build it over the waterfall, Deco because he believed the inhabitants - Art Deco’s exemplary masterpiece is the would become desensitized to the water- stainless-steel spire of the Chrysler fall’s presence and power if they merely Building overlooked it - The building and spire are monu ments to the fabulous 1920s, when American Oval Sculpture millionaires and corpo rations competed -Barbara Hepworth, 1943 - She is an artist that liked c ombining paradoxical sense of being both a safe perfect shape with a sense of organic refuge and a vulnerable place for the thr ee energy and sought a sculptural idiom that customers and the counterman would express her sense both of na ture -The seeming indifference of Hopper’s and the landscape from the perspective of characters to one another and the echoing someone who is in and observes nature spaces that
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