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Organizational Behaviour Final Exam Notes

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Zhenfeng Ma

OBAppendix Research in OB Use systematic and objective information gatheringEvidencebased managementTranslating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organization practices HypothesisFormal statement of the expected relationship between two variables VariablesMeasures that can take on two or more values Independent Cause DependentEffect Moderating Variable A variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an independent and a dependant variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the moderating variable Ie If an attendance bonus is thought to reduce absenteeism and if the bonus only reduces the absenteeism of employees who are not satisfied with their pay and has no effect on the absenteeism of people who are satisfied with their pay then pay satisfaction moderates the effect of bonus on absenteeismMediating variableA variable that intervenes between an independent and a dependentIe Why does the bonus reduce absenteeism Maybe because the bonus increases peoples motivation to come to work Therefore motivation mediates the relationship between the bonus and absenteeismReliabilityIndex of the consistency of a research subjects responses ValidityMeasure what its supposed toConvergent validityStrong relationship between different measures of the same variablesDiscriminant validityWeak relationship Observational researchResearch that examines the natural activities of people in an organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they doObservation Has set of questions to answerOngoing record of the events observedTrained to draw reasonable conclusionsOutcomes summarized in case studyParticipant observationResearcher becomes functioning member of the organization being studiedAdvantages Personal experience and secrecyDirect observation Researcher observes org behaviour without participating in the activity Used whenInfluence is a concernObserver cannot learn the job tasksOpportunity to record information is importantObservational Techniques AdvantagesDepth Breadth Richness Spontaneity Realism Disadvantages Lack of controlled environment small number of observers and situations generalization to other settings is limitedCorrelational Techniques Measures variables precisely and examine relationships among these variables without change into research settingDoesnt have breadth and richness of observationalHas more precision of measurement and greater controlDiffers from observational through nature of the data collected and issuesInvolves surveys interviews info can be qual or quan and existing data records Correlation does not imply causation Just because for example the more employees describe their supervisors as friendly the more productive the employees are doesnt necessarily mean this is the only reason for the productivity Internal validity Extent to which a researcher can be confident that changes in a dependent variable are due to independent variable Need a control group Threats to Internal ValiditySelection of participantsTestingInstrumentationStatistical regressionHistoryMaturationMortalityExperimentationSpecific precise rigorous ObservationRich broadbased loosely controlledSampling Should be random EthicsCHAPTER 1 OBand ManagementOB Understanding people and managing them to work effectively Social Inventions The coordinated presence of peopleSurvival and adaptation are organizations main goal Goals of OB Predicting explaining and managing OBManagement Art of getting things done through othersClassical view High degree of specialization of labour and coordination and centralized decision makingTaylor Scientific Management Determining optimum degree of specialization of work tasksWeber Bureaucracy Chain of command selection based on technical competence rules regulations centralized power at topHuman Relations Started with Hawthorne studies Showed how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustmentCriticized bureaucracy o Alienates employees o Limits innovation and adaptation o Resistance to change o Minimum acceptable level of performance o Employees lose sight of overall goals of the organizationContemporary Management Contingency approachNo best way to manageDepends on demands of situationMintzberg Manager Roles Interpersonal Maintaining interpersonal relations o Includes figurehead leadership and liaison roleInformational Receive and transmit info o Includes monitor disseminator and spokesperson roleDecisional roles Decision making o Includes entrepreneur disturbance handler resource allocation and negotiator roleLuthansHodgettsRosenkrantzFound that managers engage in four basic activitiesRoutine communication Formal sending and Receive infoTraditional management planning decision making controllingNetworking interaction with ppl outside of orgznHR management Motivating reinforcing disciplining punishing etc
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