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Midterm 1 Review.docx

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Ping Zhang

Organizational Behaviour and Management What are Organizations Organizationssocial inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort Social Inventions Social inventions mean that their essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people not necessarily thingsThe field of Ob is about understanding people and managing them to work effectivelyGoal AccomplishmentThe field of OBis concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change Certain behaviours are necessary for survival and adaptation People have toBe motivated to join and remain in the organizationCarry out their basic work reliably in terms of productivity quality and serviceBe willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills andbe flexible and innovative Group Effort The field of OB is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamworkWhat is Organizational Behaviour Organizational behaviourthe attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizationsOB studies how organizations can be structured more effectively and how events in their external environments affect organizationsThe most successful organizations are those that effectively manage their employees Sustained competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness are increasingly related to the management of human capital and organizational behaviour Goals of Organizational Behaviour Analysis part Describewhy are they the worst coworker Predictthese 2 things always happen together However being able to predict it does not guarantee we can explain the reason or the behaviour and develop an effective strategy to manage it Explainwhy the two things always happen together Managehow you can select good performers If prediction and explanation constitute analysis then management constitutes actionThe Classical View and Bureaucracy Classical viewpoint management that advocated high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision makingEach department was to tend to its own affairs with centralized decision making from upper management providing coordination To maintain control the classical view suggested that managers have fairly few workersScientific Management system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasksSupported the development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures and he encouraged supervisors to standardize workers movements and breaks for maximum efficiencyBureaucracyorganization that included a strict chain of command detailed rules high specialization centralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competenceWorkers would have a fair chance of being promoted and rising in the power structure The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy Hawthorne Effectfeel you have to act differently when doing a study to give them the result they the studier wants There could be dysfunctional aspects to how work was organizedone obvious sign was resistance to management through strong informal group mechanisms Human relations movementa critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needsThis critique of bureaucracy addressed several problemsStrict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievementFormal authority often fail to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower level members who are often closer to the customerStrict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of performancethat the rules specifyStrong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Contemporary Managementthe Contingency Approach The classical advocates pointed out the critical tool of control and coordination in getting organizations to achieve their goalsThe human relationists pointed out the dangers of certain forms of control and coordination and addressed the need for flexibility and adaptability There is a growing body of research and management experience to help sort out the complexities of what happens in organizationsContingency approachan approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation Managerial RolesInterpersonal Roles Expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationsIn the figurehead role managers serve as symbols of their organizationEx Making a speech to a trade group In the leadership role managers select mentor reward and discipline employees In the liaison role managers maintain contacts inside and outside the organizationInformational Roles These roles are concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit information In the monitor role managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current
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