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Chemistry Midterm 2 Review.docx

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James Gerlach

153 Coordinated Regulation of Glycolyssi and GluconeogenesisGluconeogenesis occurs primarily in the liver in mammalsThe sum of the reaction is ATPH2OADPP1HeatoFutile Cycle or substrate cycleOccurs when two metabolic pathwyas run simultaneously in opposite directins and have no overall effect other than to dissipate energy in the form of heatSubstrate Cyclemay provide advantages for controlling pathwaysThree steps are catalyzed by diferent enzymes in gluconeogenesis the bypass reaction and glycolysisoSeven steps are catalyzed by the same enzymes in the two pathwaysHexokinase IV Glucokinase Is regulated by the sequestriation in the nucleus for storage until it is neededoThis occurs when the fructose6phosphate concentration in the liver is high oDifferent isozymes have different kinetic propertiesoTranscriptionaly regulatedwhen one needed more energy or the consumption of glucosePhosphofructokinase1 PFK1 and it RegulationoAMP ADP and fructose 2bisphosphate promote the formation of fructose 16 bisphosphate from fructose 6phosphate while ATP and citrate inhbitoThe high concentration of fructose 6phosphate results in gluconeogenesis which is trigged by a high concentration of AMPThe role of Fructose 26bisphosphate in regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesisoHigh concentrations of F26BP will promote the activity of PFK1 and result in glycolysisoLow concentrations of F26BP will act preferentially on FBPase1 and result in gluconeogenesisoOne is stimulated while the other is inhibitedoPFK2 and FBPase1 are two separate enzymatic activities of a single bifunctional proteinthe cellular concentration of the F26BP is determined by the rate of its synthesis by PFK2 and FBPase2If glucagon is present there is a kinase activity cAMP dependent that uses ATP to phoshpohrylate the enxyme mae FBPase2 active and cause gluconeogenesisIn the present of insulin a phosphoproteinphosphatase activates PFK2 resulting in glycolysisPhosphoprotein phosphatase 2A PP2AoHas a catalytic subunit a regulatory subunit and a scaffold unit that holds them together with an Mn2 inhibitor areaTrancriptional Regulation
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