Short Answer Questions. Five of the following questions will be selected to
appear on the exam – you will be asked to select THREE of the 5 questions to
answer . Each question is worth five points, so when you are writing your
responses, try to come up with 5 strong, unique points to answer the question. Be
sure to answer ALL PARTS of the question. Read each question carefully.
Identify and describe two assumptions of psychological theory, and two common
objections to the role of psychology, in the study of criminality.
Two assumptions: criminals have a reduction or addition to a trait that
Criminals have a psychological deficit that distinguishes them
Two common objections:
reductionism- psychology take complex phenomena such as crime and describes
it in over simplified terms
cultural relevance- crime is determined to be different in different cultures.
Ecological fallacy: people in a group are determined to show the same
characteristics as the group at large.
Identity and describe Baumrind’s three parental styles. Which style is most likely
to result in the offspring’s criminal behavior?
Authoritarian: strict, corporal punishment.
Authoritative: firm but fair, rational
neglecting: uninterested and uninvested in child
permissive: few restriction, little supervision (most damaging)
What is Ainsworth’s “The Strange Situation?”. Describe the three levels of
attachment and explain how attachment is theorized to be related to anti-social
When a parent leaves the room and comes back, they analyze the connection to
Insecure: distressed when left, distressed and cannot be calmed down by return
secure: playing with parent, distressed when left, delighted by return.
avoidant: indifferent to parent.
What is heritability? Identify two lines of research examining the role of genetics
in criminal behaviour and describe the general findings that have emerged from
Lombroso, Twin Studies.
Hereditability is the ability to pass criminality through genetics (criminality is
According to Cheater Theory, what is the difference between “dads” and “cads”?
How might a “cad’s” reproductive strategy be related to antisocial behaviour?
Dads: high parental effort, support to children.
Cads: low parental effort, low support to children and low effort, may be infidelity. Using Homicide