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Jennifer Lavoie

Short Answer Questions. Five of the following questions will be selected to appear on the exam – you will be asked to select THREE of the 5 questions to answer . Each question is worth five points, so when you are writing your responses, try to come up with 5 strong, unique points to answer the question. Be sure to answer ALL PARTS of the question. Read each question carefully. Identify and describe two assumptions of psychological theory, and two common objections to the role of psychology, in the study of criminality. Two assumptions: criminals have a reduction or addition to a trait that distinguishes them Criminals have a psychological deficit that distinguishes them Two common objections: reductionism- psychology take complex phenomena such as crime and describes it in over simplified terms cultural relevance- crime is determined to be different in different cultures. Ecological fallacy: people in a group are determined to show the same characteristics as the group at large. Identity and describe Baumrind’s three parental styles. Which style is most likely to result in the offspring’s criminal behavior? Authoritarian: strict, corporal punishment. Authoritative: firm but fair, rational neglecting: uninterested and uninvested in child permissive: few restriction, little supervision (most damaging) What is Ainsworth’s “The Strange Situation?”. Describe the three levels of attachment and explain how attachment is theorized to be related to anti-social behavior. When a parent leaves the room and comes back, they analyze the connection to the parent. Insecure: distressed when left, distressed and cannot be calmed down by return secure: playing with parent, distressed when left, delighted by return. avoidant: indifferent to parent. What is heritability? Identify two lines of research examining the role of genetics in criminal behaviour and describe the general findings that have emerged from this research. Lombroso, Twin Studies. Hereditability is the ability to pass criminality through genetics (criminality is inhereted) According to Cheater Theory, what is the difference between “dads” and “cads”? How might a “cad’s” reproductive strategy be related to antisocial behaviour? Dads: high parental effort, support to children. Cads: low parental effort, low support to children and low effort, may be infidelity. Using Homicide
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