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Es 101 Mid-Term Notes.docx

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Environmental Studies
Edmund Okoree

Environmental Studies Mid-Term Environmental Issues  Five main issues o Air Pollution o Waste Pollution o Biodiversity Depletion o Food Supply Problem-loss of farmland o Waste Production-hazardous Environmental Terms  Environment: everything that affects us for living  Ecology: interaction between organisms and environment  Enviro Studies: understanding human systems  Enviro Science: understanding science with relation to organisms  Environmentalism: approach/belief in understanding environment  Natural Capital: everything earth provides us Natural Capital  What we need to sustain us o Sun, water, air, land, plants and animals  Overdrawing on capital leads to; o Animal and plant extinction o Unusable land Environmental Goods and Services  Goods o Sun, air, land, water, living organisms  Services-examples of services: o Filter air quality o Recreation o Resources o Eco-Tourism o Pollinators Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  Four general services provided  Provisioning o Products people obtain from ecosystems o Ex. Food, fuel, water, resources  Supporting o Necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services o Ex. Primary production, soil formation, production of oxygen  Regulating o Benefits people obtain from ecosystem o Ex. Air quality maintenance, climate regulation, erosion control  Cultural o Nonmaterial benefits people obtain o Ex. Recreation, spiritual enrichment Sustainability  Living off nature`s interest and protecting the capital  Society meets basic resource needs of its people without degrading or depleting the natural capital  Needs differ by regions and cultures Regional Disparity: differences between different regions, ex. Developed vs. developing  Large inequity or resources  Developed countries count for majority of resource use, waste and income, but account for a small percentage of population Resource: goods and services from the environment to meet our needs, our needs may differ by perspectives Types of Resources  Perpetual: renewed continuously o ex. Sun, wind, tides  Renewable: replenished fairly rapidly o Ex. Forests, animals, water, soil  Non-renewable: use exceeds replacement rate o Ex. Fossil fuels Tragedy of the Commons  Depletion of renewable free access resources  ``if I do not use this resource, someone else will. The little bit I use or pollute is not enough to matter` o Ex. Fisheries have been overfished and some fish have been completely wiped out Impact Model I=P + A + T I is Environmental Impact P is Population A is Affluence T is Technology Cultural Changes  Hunting and Gathering Society o 60,000 years ago o Hunt wildlife o Migrated with wildlife o Nomadic and little environmental impact o Small populations, lack of technology and low resource use  Ex. Dorset culture, Thule  Agricultural Revolution o 10-12,000 years ago o Shifting cultivation, “Slash and Burn” o Domestication of wildlife and cultivation of plants o Sustainable lifestyle, only impacted local environment  Ex. Used nutrients from the soil  Industrial Revolution o Mid 1700’s o Dependency on fossil fuels o Dramatic increase in environmental impact o Dependent on larger scale productions o Lead to urban sprawls-more cities, factories  Information Revolution-Globalization o 1950’s to present o Ability to communicate with one another o Increases affluence demand o Reduces the friction of distance Environmental History-Canada Characteristics First Nations European Settlement Relationship to Land Close Distant Land Ownership Common property Privatization Environmental Impact Low High Ancestral Puebloan  Ancient farming society-Four Corners of US  Integrated farmsteads through economic and religious ties  Hundreds of miles of roadways  Eventually society failed-environmental degradation and climate change  System was overpopulated and reliant on agriculture o A drought likely occurred  System reach threshold and collapsed Environmental History-Canada  Conservationist Era o 1830’s-1960’s o First environmental movement in 1960 o Parks started to be created to protect environment o Emerging science of ecology o Key People  John Muir-sierra club  Glifford Pinchot-wise-use movement  Clifford Sifton-Canada’s “Father of Conservation”  Environmental Era o 1960-present o After WWII many pesticides were used o Environmental awareness o Key People  Aldo Leopold-Land Ethics  Rachel Carson-Silent Spring  1960’s o Environmental movement o Local/personal awareness o Emerging science of ecology  1970’s o Increased awareness o 1 Earth Day o Greenpeace was formed  1980’s o Canada worked to solve acid-rain o Ronald Reagan eroded past progress o Environment mainstream o PM Mulroney  1990’s o Kyoto Protocol-greenhouse emissions o Montreal Protocol-CFC’s o Hole in ozone  2000’s o More collaboration between environmental groups and government Passenger Pigeon  Wiped out by hunting movement  Became a delicacy-nest in colonies  Ecology was not understood Bison  Most plentiful on plains in 1800’s  Food source for First Nations  Eliminated in war tactics Keystone Pipeline  Pipeline from Alberta to US  Supporters o Good for economies o Many jobs o Ethical source of oil  Activists o Increase demand in fossil fuels will cause development of tar sands o Bad for environment Abiotic: non-living Biotic: living Landslide occurred because the soil had reached its threshold. Science: identify order in natural world Scientific Hypothesis: possible explanations Scientific Theory: hypothesis becomes theory  Verified, credible, widely accepted Scientific Law: description of phenomenon, happens every time  Ex. Law of Gravity Model: approximate or simplified representation or simulation of a system  Ex. Wind tunnels, Gaussian Plume Model-measures smoke over a landscape Frontier Science  Scientific breakthroughs  Controversial-heavily criticized  Not widely tested o Ex. Watermelon as fuel source Sound Science  Accurate  Widely accepted  Laws o Ex. Climate Change Junk Science  Unproven  Promoted as sound science  Not expert  Misleading-agendas o Ex. People said second hand smoke wasn’t caused by cigarettes Systems  Inputs, throughputs/flows, and outputs  Measures connectivity  General way of looking at things Feedback Loops  Occurs when an output of matter, energy or information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system o Positive Feedback Loop  Causes system to change in the same direction  Ex. Arctic system-arctic caps melting causes land to melt, which creates more energy that gets absorbed, temperatures rises and so on o Negative Feedback Loop  Also known as corrective  System changes in opposite direction  Ex. Do poorly on a midterm so you learn that you need to study for the final  Ex. Riding a bike-you fall before you learn Synergy: two or more processes interact-whole is greater than sum of parts  Ex. Protests, putting a smelter and incinerator together Thresholds  Systems may reach point of major change  Funda
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