Study Guides (248,283)
Canada (121,453)
ES101 (28)
Midterm

Es 101 Mid-Term Notes.docx

13 Pages
985 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Environmental Studies
Course
ES101
Professor
Edmund Okoree
Semester
Fall

Description
Environmental Studies Mid-Term Environmental Issues  Five main issues o Air Pollution o Waste Pollution o Biodiversity Depletion o Food Supply Problem-loss of farmland o Waste Production-hazardous Environmental Terms  Environment: everything that affects us for living  Ecology: interaction between organisms and environment  Enviro Studies: understanding human systems  Enviro Science: understanding science with relation to organisms  Environmentalism: approach/belief in understanding environment  Natural Capital: everything earth provides us Natural Capital  What we need to sustain us o Sun, water, air, land, plants and animals  Overdrawing on capital leads to; o Animal and plant extinction o Unusable land Environmental Goods and Services  Goods o Sun, air, land, water, living organisms  Services-examples of services: o Filter air quality o Recreation o Resources o Eco-Tourism o Pollinators Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  Four general services provided  Provisioning o Products people obtain from ecosystems o Ex. Food, fuel, water, resources  Supporting o Necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services o Ex. Primary production, soil formation, production of oxygen  Regulating o Benefits people obtain from ecosystem o Ex. Air quality maintenance, climate regulation, erosion control  Cultural o Nonmaterial benefits people obtain o Ex. Recreation, spiritual enrichment Sustainability  Living off nature`s interest and protecting the capital  Society meets basic resource needs of its people without degrading or depleting the natural capital  Needs differ by regions and cultures Regional Disparity: differences between different regions, ex. Developed vs. developing  Large inequity or resources  Developed countries count for majority of resource use, waste and income, but account for a small percentage of population Resource: goods and services from the environment to meet our needs, our needs may differ by perspectives Types of Resources  Perpetual: renewed continuously o ex. Sun, wind, tides  Renewable: replenished fairly rapidly o Ex. Forests, animals, water, soil  Non-renewable: use exceeds replacement rate o Ex. Fossil fuels Tragedy of the Commons  Depletion of renewable free access resources  ``if I do not use this resource, someone else will. The little bit I use or pollute is not enough to matter` o Ex. Fisheries have been overfished and some fish have been completely wiped out Impact Model I=P + A + T I is Environmental Impact P is Population A is Affluence T is Technology Cultural Changes  Hunting and Gathering Society o 60,000 years ago o Hunt wildlife o Migrated with wildlife o Nomadic and little environmental impact o Small populations, lack of technology and low resource use  Ex. Dorset culture, Thule  Agricultural Revolution o 10-12,000 years ago o Shifting cultivation, “Slash and Burn” o Domestication of wildlife and cultivation of plants o Sustainable lifestyle, only impacted local environment  Ex. Used nutrients from the soil  Industrial Revolution o Mid 1700’s o Dependency on fossil fuels o Dramatic increase in environmental impact o Dependent on larger scale productions o Lead to urban sprawls-more cities, factories  Information Revolution-Globalization o 1950’s to present o Ability to communicate with one another o Increases affluence demand o Reduces the friction of distance Environmental History-Canada Characteristics First Nations European Settlement Relationship to Land Close Distant Land Ownership Common property Privatization Environmental Impact Low High Ancestral Puebloan  Ancient farming society-Four Corners of US  Integrated farmsteads through economic and religious ties  Hundreds of miles of roadways  Eventually society failed-environmental degradation and climate change  System was overpopulated and reliant on agriculture o A drought likely occurred  System reach threshold and collapsed Environmental History-Canada  Conservationist Era o 1830’s-1960’s o First environmental movement in 1960 o Parks started to be created to protect environment o Emerging science of ecology o Key People  John Muir-sierra club  Glifford Pinchot-wise-use movement  Clifford Sifton-Canada’s “Father of Conservation”  Environmental Era o 1960-present o After WWII many pesticides were used o Environmental awareness o Key People  Aldo Leopold-Land Ethics  Rachel Carson-Silent Spring  1960’s o Environmental movement o Local/personal awareness o Emerging science of ecology  1970’s o Increased awareness o 1 Earth Day o Greenpeace was formed  1980’s o Canada worked to solve acid-rain o Ronald Reagan eroded past progress o Environment mainstream o PM Mulroney  1990’s o Kyoto Protocol-greenhouse emissions o Montreal Protocol-CFC’s o Hole in ozone  2000’s o More collaboration between environmental groups and government Passenger Pigeon  Wiped out by hunting movement  Became a delicacy-nest in colonies  Ecology was not understood Bison  Most plentiful on plains in 1800’s  Food source for First Nations  Eliminated in war tactics Keystone Pipeline  Pipeline from Alberta to US  Supporters o Good for economies o Many jobs o Ethical source of oil  Activists o Increase demand in fossil fuels will cause development of tar sands o Bad for environment Abiotic: non-living Biotic: living Landslide occurred because the soil had reached its threshold. Science: identify order in natural world Scientific Hypothesis: possible explanations Scientific Theory: hypothesis becomes theory  Verified, credible, widely accepted Scientific Law: description of phenomenon, happens every time  Ex. Law of Gravity Model: approximate or simplified representation or simulation of a system  Ex. Wind tunnels, Gaussian Plume Model-measures smoke over a landscape Frontier Science  Scientific breakthroughs  Controversial-heavily criticized  Not widely tested o Ex. Watermelon as fuel source Sound Science  Accurate  Widely accepted  Laws o Ex. Climate Change Junk Science  Unproven  Promoted as sound science  Not expert  Misleading-agendas o Ex. People said second hand smoke wasn’t caused by cigarettes Systems  Inputs, throughputs/flows, and outputs  Measures connectivity  General way of looking at things Feedback Loops  Occurs when an output of matter, energy or information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system o Positive Feedback Loop  Causes system to change in the same direction  Ex. Arctic system-arctic caps melting causes land to melt, which creates more energy that gets absorbed, temperatures rises and so on o Negative Feedback Loop  Also known as corrective  System changes in opposite direction  Ex. Do poorly on a midterm so you learn that you need to study for the final  Ex. Riding a bike-you fall before you learn Synergy: two or more processes interact-whole is greater than sum of parts  Ex. Protests, putting a smelter and incinerator together Thresholds  Systems may reach point of major change  Funda
More Less

Related notes for ES101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit